Rice field fisheries constitute a vital source of income and nutrition for Cambodia’s poor farmers. However, as population and demand for fish grows, there has been a marked decline in yields and a degradation of aquatic biodiversity. Intensification of rice farming, pesticides and damage to habitats have also contributed to this problem. WorldFish is partnering with NGOs, local authorities and national universities to research ways to increase productivity, expand rice field fisheries while seeking innovative ways to increase biodiversity and protect ecosystems. Its goal is to improve knowledge on how Cambodia’s 1200 community fish refuges can improve and enhance rice field fish yields.