For the people of Zambia, especially the poor, fish is the most important and sometimes only source of animal protein and other essential nutrients. However, the per capita supply of fish today is only half of what it was 30 years ago, due to stagnating production, growing populations and increasingly competitive trade. Projections for future supplies are that fish will become increasingly expensive also in Zambia. Currently Zambian households in most parts of the country spend more money on fish than on any other food item, including staple foods and other animal products. If this trend continues, there are concerns that fish may slip out of the reach of the poor – with far-reaching implications for national nutrition security and public health.