In this chapter, the authors examine whether the leather trade or other economic uses of crocodiles really are key to conserving the threatened crocodilians in the Asia Pacific region. They review six species of crocodile and the role of hunting, farming and other forms of exploitation in their management. Drawing on these and other cases from around the world, the author then consider some of the conditions that ensure such uses are sustainable and benefit, rather than endanger, wild populations.
In April 2016, at the Pyin Oo Lwin workshop, Myanmar’s leading institutions, researchers and practitioners in fisheries and aquaculture came together with international experts to support the new government in finding the path that would best fulfill the potential of the fisheries and aquaculture sectors.
Gender-transformative approaches aim to move beyond individual self-improvement among women and toward transforming the power dynamics and structures that serve to reinforce gendered inequalities. As defined by the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS), a gender-transformative approach to development goes beyond the "symptoms" of gender inequality to address "the social norms, attitudes, behaviors, and social systems that underlie them".
In rural areas of Bangladesh, the vast majority of households own only small or large shaded homestead ponds located next to their dwellings and the pond dikes are covered with large timber trees, a situation where it is quite difficult to produce fish and vegetables on the dikes. Incorporation of appropriate technologies however, can successfully utilize homestead ponds for commercial fish farming that can meet growing protein and nutritional demand.
The legalisation of the customary land rights of rural communities is currently actively promoted as a strategy for conserving biodiversity. There is, however, little empirical information on the conservation outcomes of these tenure reforms. In this paper, we describe four conservation projects that specifically aimed to formalise land rights in the Philippines, a country widely seen as a model for the devolution of control over natural resources to rural communities.
Shrimp culture is of central importance in Bangladesh, shrimp being the cash component of many smallholder, polyculture fish farming systems. Shrimp also contributes substantial income through exports. However, production remains low compared with other countries for a number of reasons, including low availability of good quality post larvae (PL) seed stock, lack of credit facilities, and disease problems.
The Myanmar Fishery Partnership (MFP) is a new initiative being established to assist the Myanmar government in strengthening effective collaboration for the sustainable development of Myanmar’s fisheries and aquaculture sector. Four policy briefs have been developed by the Myanmar Fisheries Partnership to help the government address the most challenging issues facing fisheries in Myanmar.
Myanmar’s offshore fish stocks have been depleted by up to 80% since 1979, exposing Myanmar’s people to significant economic, food security, nutrition and environmental risks. This ecosystem decline has been driven by out-dated and weak laws and policies and by inadequate management and institutional capacity. Investment in protecting and restoring fish stocks, ecosystems and habitats is required.
The freshwater fisheries in Myanmar are economically significant and important to livelihoods and food security. Yet significant threats to the resource base and public demand call for the development of management initiatives, legal adjustments and a people-centered approach. This brief identifies a series of options and priorities that could help improving freshwater fisheries management towards a more sustainable and equitable exploitation of inland fish resources.
Fish is an extremely important component of the Myanmar diet, and demand is growing quickly as the country urbanizes and incomes rise. Aquaculture is ideally placed to meet this demand, while also raising farm incomes and creating employment. This brief identifies three sets of policy options that could help to unlock the full potential of aquaculture’s contributions to rural growth and national food supply.