Interest in the large-scale development of aquaculture as a manageable food production system has intensified considerably during the past decade.
Increasing water productivity is an important element in improved water management for sustainable agriculture, food security and healthy ecosystem functioning. Water productivity is defined as the amount of agricultural output per unit of water depleted, and can be assessed for crops, trees, livestock and fish. This chapter reviews challenges in and opportunities for improving water productivity in socially equitable and sustainable ways by thinking beyond technologies, and fostering enabling institutions and policies.
Details are given of the tilapia hatchery systems used in the Philippines i.e., the "hapa" floating hatcheries and the backyard pond hatcheries, and their applications in Indonesia. Experiments are being conducted in Saguling Reservoir, near Bandung, Indonesia using hapa hatcheries, holding broodstock and growout fingerlings in floating cages. This technology is showing great potential for reaching poor farmers who have little land or capital but adequate water and access to irrigation.
The genetic response in growth traits in a selection program for increased harvest weight in a common carp population in Vietnam is reported. A base population (G0) was established from six carp stocks using single pair mating. Selection was based on high breeding values for body weight at harvest, with a corresponding control group selected on average breeding values of the population.
The role of the WorldFish Center is to research and disseminate appropriate aquaculture and fisheries technologies for sustainable agricultural intensification. To achieve these goals the WorldFish Center works in partnership with the government of Malawi. It leverages success by collaborating with both local and overseas academic research organizations, drawing funding from the global development community.
Development programmes aimed at raising income levels of the half-million Philippine traditional municipal fishermen have emphasized production-oriented projects designed to up-grade vessels and gear. Review of recent biological, technical, and socio-economic research provides evidence that technology-based efforts have generally not been successful, and that the coastal resources fished by municipal fishermen are not as extensive as previously supposed.
A brief account of the origin and basic assumptions of the ECOPATH software and approach is given, with emphasison their documentation in Fishbyte, and to the transition to its successor, the ECOPATH II program. Some implications of the worldwide utilization of ECOPATH II are discussed, along with its supportive use in fisheries management.
A procedure is proposed by which recruit numbers and parental biomass of shrimps stocks can be derived, given a series of catch per effort data and estimates of a few ancillary variables. In the Gulf of Thailand, shrimp recruitment decreased with decreasing egg production, but increased with decreasing total (mainly fish) standing stock. The net result of these counteracting effects was an overall increase in shrimp recruitment, attributable to a greatly reduced prerecruit mortality.
Coral bleaching and subsequent mortality represent a major threat to the future health and productivity of coral reefs. However a lack of reliable data on occurrence, severity and other characteristics of bleaching events hampers research on the causes and consequences of this important phenomenon. This handbook describes a global protocol for monitoring coral bleaching events, which addresses this problem and can be used by people with different levels of expertise and resources.
Genetic improvement has led to substantial increase in productivity in farmed animals and in tropical fin fish, this is evident in tilapia. The GIFT (Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia) strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) has been developed by the WorldFish Centre (formerly known as ICLARM), Norwegian Institute of Aquaculture Research and national research partners from Philippines (1988-1998) and from Malaysia (2000- present).