This year's report contains the Director General's and Chairman's statements. Also highlighted in the reports, are stories of projects with different partners: 1) CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) in Zambia. 2) Wetland Alliance project in the Mekong delta. 3) Projects with CARE, the humanitarian organisation in Egypt. 4) Tilapia breeding program with Water Research Institute (WRI) in Ghana. 5) Partnerships with the private sector on sustainable aquaculture enterprise in developing countries.
The initiative of the Partnership for Development in Kampuchea (PADEK), in organizing a National Symposium on Women in Fisheries in Cambodia in 1994, received overwhelming support from the Government of Cambodia. This resulted in the organization of a regional seminar on the same issue involving all the countries in the Mekong Basin in 1996.
Wind and water power have a significant contribution to make to aquaculture and fish processing. Wind energy can provide mechanical power to operate pumps and aerators and can clso be used to generate electricity. Small-scalehydropower may be used to serve aquaculture in many ways wherever there is sufficient flow and fall of water. Additionally, refrigeration equipment and heat pumps may be driven by both wind and water power. The integration of these systems can serve energy needs in fish farming for processing, ice-making, mechanical power and electricity.
The findings are presented of a literature survey conducted regarding research on Epinephelus culture. Information was obtained from ASFA for the period 1971-88, the ICLARM library and professional staff collections. Details are given of publication types, areas of research and some recent papers and research centres involved in grouper cultureare cited.
Commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services is then reviewed. Provisioning services, notably fish and water for irrigation or domestic and industrial purposes constitute important benefits derived by humanity from wetlands, whilst recognition is growing that supporting, regulating and cultural services supported by wetlands are critical for sustaining social-economic systems and ensuring human well-being.
Fish farming in Egypt is not formally recognized as an agricultural activity, so aquaculture cannot use water from irrigation canals. However, fish are raised as primary or secondary crops in combination with fruit and other plant crops. A study by the WorldFish Center found farms could efficiently use well water to intensively raise tilapia in aerated tanks and use the effluent to irrigate fruit trees, vegetables and flowers. Two other farms used water from nearby Nile irrigation canals to fill water storage reservoirs stocked with tilapia.
Mangroves and seagrasses are of special interest to coastal fisheries worldwide because of the role they play in providing nursery areas for commonly harvested fish and invertebrates. Although the ecology of fish and invertebrates associated with mangroves and seagrasses in the tropical Pacific is not well understood compared with other parts of the world, the connectivity among mangroves, seagrasses, intertidal flats and coral reefs indicates that mangroves and seagrasses throughout the region provide a similar function to such habitats elsewhere.
Value chain showing the steps of fish handling from inputs, production, processing and distribution, marketing to final consumption.
This study was carried out to evaluate the value chain performance of the aquaculture feed sector in Egypt, in terms of value addition, employment and profitability. The strengths and weaknesses of each link of the value chain were assessed and appropriate upgrading, management and development strategies were suggested. Quantitative data were collected for each link in the value-chain through structured questionnaires that were drafted and distributed to the key players in the sector; 25 fish feed mills and 34 fish farms covering different geographical and production regions.
Resilience is emerging as a promising vehicle for improving management of social-ecological systems that can potentially lead to more sustainable arrangements between environmental and social spheres. Central to an understanding of how to support resilience is the need to understand social change and its links with adaptation and transformation. Our aim is to contribute to insights about and understanding of underlying social dynamics at play in social-ecological systems.