Strategic review of enhancements and culture-based fisheries
Lorenzen, K. et al. (2001). Strategic review of enhancements and culture-based fisheries. In: NACA/FAO, 2001. Aquaculture in the Third Millennium. Subasinghe, R.P., Bueno, P., Phillips, M.J., Hough, C., McGladdery, S.E., & Arthur, J.E. (Eds.) Technical Proceedings of the Conference on Aquaculture in the Third Millennium, Bangkok, Thailand. 20-25 February 2000. NACA, Bangkok and FAO, Rome.
EnhancementsÂ are interventions in the life cycleÂ ofÂ common-pool aquatic resources.Â EnhancementÂ technologies includeÂ culture-based fisheries, habitat modifications, fertilization, feeding and eliminationÂ ofÂ predators/competitors.EnhancementsÂ are estimated to yield about two million mt per year, mostly fromÂ culture-based fisheriesÂ in fresh waters where they account for some 20 percentÂ ofÂ capture, or 10 percentÂ ofÂ combined capture and culture production. MarineÂ enhancementsÂ are still at an experimental stage, but some have reached commercial production.EnhancementsÂ use limited external feed and energy inputs, and can provide very high returns for labour and capital input. Moreover,Â enhancementÂ initiatives can facilitate institutional change and a more active managementÂ ofaquatic resources, leading to increased productivity, conservation and wider social benefits.Â EnhancementsÂ may help to maintain population abundance, community structure and ecosystem functioning in the faceÂ ofÂ heavy exploitation and/or environmental degradation.