Home > Publications > WorldFish Publication E-Alert - July 2012

WorldFish Publication E-Alert - July 2012

 
 
 
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We are pleased to share with you a selection of some of WorldFish’s recent publications (April 2012 to June 2012). Publications Alert Vol. 2  2012
Please feel free to visit www.worldfishcenter.org to access the complete publication database.
      
Corporate
2011 Publications catalog
WorldFish Lesson Learned Briefs
Community fish refuges in Cambodia: Lesson learned
WorldFish Project Reports
Design and implementation of fishery modules in integrated household surveys in developing countries
Fish and fisheries in the Sesan River Basin: catchment baseline, fisheries section
Fish bioecology in relation to sediments in the Mekong and in tropical rivers
Impacts of climate change and variability on fish value chains in Uganda
CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems
Annual report
CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems Roll-Out Handbook. Ver. 1.0. May, 2012
CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems: Communication strategy
Gender strategy brief: A gender transformative approach to research in development in aquatic agricultural systems
Mangrove ecosystem services and payments for blue carbon in Solomon Islands
Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems: Program summary: Solomon Islands
Strengthening governance across scales in aquatic agricultural systems
Aquaculture
Alleviating poverty through aquaculture: progress, opportunities and improvements
Cooperation in aquaculture rehabilitation and development in Aceh, Indonesia
Does size matter? Reassessing the relationship between aquaculture and poverty in Bangladesh
Inclusive aquaculture: business at the bottom of the aquatic pyramid
Servicing the aquaculture sector: role of state and private sectors
Biodiversity
Functional aquatic ecosystems, inland fisheries and the Millennium Development Goals
New species in the old world: Europe as a frontier in biodiversity exploration, a test bed for 21st century taxonomy
Climate Change
Can marine fisheries and aquaculture meet fish demand from a growing human population in a changing climate?
Fishery and Health
The 'Fish Trader+' model: reducing female traders' vulnerability to HIV
Fish Nutrition
The potential of nutrient-rich small fish species in aquaculture to improve human nutrition and health
Fishery Management
Institutional arrangements in seasonal floodplain management under community-based aquaculture in Bangladesh
Navigating change: Second-generation challenges of small-scale fisheries co-management in the Philippines and Vietnam
Wealth, rights, and resilience: An agenda for governance reform in small-scale fisheries
Gender and Fishery
Sustaining aquaculture by developing human capacity and enhancing opportunities for women
Integrated aquaculture-agriculture
Evaluation of the use of fresh water by four Egyptian farms applying integrated aquaculture-agriculture: study report
Water use at integrated aquaculture-agriculture farms: experiences with limited water resources in Egypt
Small Scale Fishery
Protecting small-scale farmers: a reality within a globalized economy?
Other
Beam trawlermen take feet off gas in response to oil price hikes
Increasing water productivity in agriculture
Multiple water use as an approach for increased basin productivity and improved adaptation: a case study from Bangladesh
The forgotten service: food as an ecosystem service from estuarine and coastal zones
Wetland agroecosystems
   
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1.

WorldFish. 2012.
2011 Publications catalog. 2012-13.

This catalog lists publications published by WorldFish and papers contributed by the Center’s scientists in 2011. It reflects the outcomes of research carried out in collaboration with partners from 27 countries through the generous support from international investors. The majority of which are members of the CGIAR.

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2.

Joffre, O. ; Kosal, M. ; Kura, Y. ; Pich, S. ; Nao, T. 2012.
Community fish refuges in Cambodia: Lesson learned. Lessons Learned Brief 2012-03. WorldFish. Phom Penh, Cambodia. 16 p.

Cambodia's wetlands cover over 30 percent of the country’s land area and support one of the largest, most diverse and intensive freshwater fisheries in the world. In the flood season (July-February), the flood waters from the Mekong River and Tonle Sap Lake catchments create a vast open water system on Cambodia’s lowlands. During this period, inundated rice fields become open access fishing grounds for local villagers and migrant fishers. Fishing in rice fields and floodplain systems takes place throughout the flood season, but the peak season is when water is receding (from November to February). Rice field fisheries are estimated to contribute up to 28% of the wild capture fisheries in Cambodia. Rice field fisheries are seen as a promising sub-sector to increase fish catches and meet the domestic demand for food. Despite its importance in Cambodia’s rural livelihoods, this complex system of rice field fisheries has not been a focus of detailed research or NGO projects until recently, with the advent of the Community Fish Refuge (CFR) approach. A Community Fish Refuge (CFR) is a form of stock enhancement or a fish conservation measure that is intended to improve the productivity of rice field fisheries. The idea behind refuge ponds is to create dry season refuges or sanctuaries for brood fish in seasonally inundated rice fields. Refuge ponds can be man-made ponds or natural ponds that can hold water throughout the year. During the dry season, these refuge ponds become disconnected from permanent natural water bodies.

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3.

Béné, C. ; Chijere Asafu, D.G. ; Allison, E.H. ; Snyder, K. 2012.
Design and implementation of fishery modules in integrated household surveys in developing countries. WorldFish, Penang.

Fish and other aquatic animals contribute to the food security of citizens of developing countries, both as a source of income and as a component of healthy diets, yet fishing is not currently captured in most integrated household surveys. This sourcebook provides essential technical guidance on the design of statistical modules and questionnaires aimed at collecting fishery data at the household level. Background on the main policies important to the fishery sector, information on the data needed to analyze issues of policy relevance, and methodology on the construction of survey questions to collect necessary data are also provided. The document is organized to provide essential technical guidance on how to design statistical modules and questionnaires aimed at collecting fishery data at the household level. It includes an overview of the main technical and statistical challenges related to sampling fishery-dependent households. The document starts with an introductory section identifying the potential reasons why fisheries and in particular small-scale fisheries have not been adequately included in national statistical systems in a large number of countries. The report then proposes a succinct review of what is known (and what remains unknown) about small-scale fisheries and their contribution to the livelihoods of households in sub-Saharan Africa. It also provides readers with background on the main policies that are important to the fishery sector, information on the data needed to analyze issues of policy relevance, and methodology on the construction of survey questions to collect necessary data.

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4.

Baran, E. ; Samadee, S. ; Teoh, S.J. ; Tran, T.C. 2011.
Fish and fisheries in the Sesan River Basin: catchment baseline, fisheries section. Mekong Challenge Program project MK3 “Optimizing the management of a cascade of reservoirs at the catchment level”. WorldFish, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. 61 p.

The present report was prepared for the Water and Food Challenge Program project “Optimizing the management of a cascade of reservoirs at the catchment level” (MK3). It constitutes the baseline assessment of fish and fisheries in the Sesan River Basin. The objective of the MK3 project is to contribute knowledge and recommendations so that cascades of reservoirs corresponding to hydropower dams in the Mekong Basin are managed in ways that are more fair and equitable for all water users. This project seeks to understand at the catchment scale the cumulative upstream and downstream consequences of management decisions taken for multiple reservoirs. Revised rules for water storage infrastructure management will in particular take into account fisheries and agricultural potential as well as hydropower generation.

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5.

Baran, E. ; Guerin, E. 2012.
Fish bioecology in relation to sediments in the Mekong and in tropical rivers. Report for the Project “A Climate Resilient Mekong: Maintaining the Flows that Nourish Life” led by the Natural Heritage Institute. WorldFish, Phnom Penh, Cambodia. 52 p.

Sediments are an essential component of rivers and of their biological functioning. In addition to their influence on river geomorphology (maintenance of river forms and habitats such as pools and sand bars), sediments also include nutrients, detritus and organic debris of various sizes which interact with the river’s different life forms, including fish. The interaction between sediments and aquatic organisms, directly or indirectly through the effects of sediments on physical habitats, unquestionably influences the biodiversity and productivity of a river. The current report reviews the interactions between sediments and fish in tropical rivers and in the Mekong, and focuses more specifically on a reduction of sediment loads following dam construction.

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6.

Timmers, B. 2012.
Impacts of climate change and variability on fish value chains in Uganda. Project Report 2012-18. WorldFish. Penang, Malaysia.

Fish are a significant source of income and food security in Uganda, highly vulnerable to climate and non-climate related drivers of change. This study examines the vulnerability of the fish sector in Uganda as it relates to the predicted impacts from climate change and variability, using the concept of the value chain. The specific purpose of the study was to identify current and potential impact pathways of climate change and corresponding adaptation strategies in fish value chains. By considering the value chains related to fisheries (Nile Perch and mukene) and pond aquaculture (Nile tilapia and African catfish) in Uganda, this report is able to present context- and sector-specific adaptation strategies for products contributing to domestic food security, livelihoods and national economic development.

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7.

CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. 2012.
Annual report. CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Penang, Malaysia. AAS-2012-09.

The program on aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) aims to change the way the CGIAR engages with aquatic agricultural systems and the poor and vulnerable communities who depend upon them. To do so the program has focused on three primary lines of work in its first six months: (i) preparing for implementation of the program in focal countries and geographical hubs; (ii) harnessing the best of earlier and ongoing research that contributes to the science themes of the program and which we wish to see expanded and integrated into the program as it develops; (iii) establishing innovative governance and management arrangements that will guide and implement the program. This report summaries the achievements and reviews the progress of the AAS program.

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8.

CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. 2012.
CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems Roll-Out Handbook. Ver. 1.0. May, 2012. Penang, Malaysia. AAS-2012-05.

This handbook is a guide to procedures and practices that should be observed during hub roll-out by the teams coordinating the planning, implementation and reporting of the activities of the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS-CRP). Given that the program promises to change the way research in development is planned, implemented and reported, it is important that similar practices be observed from the start. This will assist later cross-hub comparisons.

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9.

CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. 2012.
CGIAR Research Program on Agricultural Systems: Communication strategy. CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Penang, Malaysia. AAS-2012-11.

The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) is one of the CGIAR’s 15 research programs. Through a program of participatory action research, referred to as “Research in Development”, the Program aims to improve the lives of the many millions of people who depend on aquatic agricultural systems. This Strategy will create the platform to capture, collect, produce, manage, brand and share information that is generated throughout the Program’s lifecycle.

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10.

CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. 2012.
Gender strategy brief: A gender transformative approach to research in development in aquatic agricultural systems. CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Penang, Malaysia. Brief AAS-2012-03a.

In July 2011, the CGIAR approved the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) in recognition of the importance of these systems and the potential they provide for reducing poverty. Our goal is to reduce poverty and improve food security for people whose livelihoods depend on aquatic agricultural systems. We believe we can achieve this by adopting a new and innovative research approach that will overcome past constraints and result in a deeper understanding of the multidimensional nature of poverty, the diversified livelihoods of the women and men who depend on these systems, and therefore unlock multiple opportunities for improvement. The AAS Gender Strategy will take a broader perspective, integrating efforts to redress gender disparities in resources, technologies and services with complementary efforts to promote more gender equitable systems within which poor women and men can use them. This requires a significant investment in building context-specific knowledge of the dynamics of social inequality. Key to the Program’s success therefore is to understand the systemic nature of gender inequality across program contexts in order to identify ways to create more enabling socioeconomic environments for poor women and men alike

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11.

Albert, J.A. ; Warren-Rhodes, K. ; Schwarz, A.J. ; Duke, N.D. 2012.
Mangrove ecosystem services and payments for blue carbon in Solomon Islands. CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. WorldFish, Solomon Islands. AAS-2012-06.

The AusAID Development Research Project: Poverty Alleviation, Mangrove Conservation and Climate Change: Carbon offsets as payment for mangrove ecosystem services in Solomon Islands (# 49892) was designed to evaluate the potential for mangrove carbon revenue programs in Solomon Islands. The approach was to address three main questions: (1) How are mangrove ecosystem goods and services currently used and valued by coastal populations with a high reliance on a subsistence economy? (2) What is the total carbon stock held in mangrove ecosystems? and (3) Are carbon markets, whether compliance or voluntary, feasible options for Solomon Islands communities and government to alleviate poverty, reduce mangrove forest resource degradation and contribute to climate change adaptation and mitigation? The project was conducted through a partnership between WorldFish and the Solomon Islands Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology (MECDM). Here we present the project’s main research findings and concomitant policy implications for local communities and government agencies, NGOs and other stakeholders involved in climate change and REDD+ activities.

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12.

Schwarz, A.M. 2012.
Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems: Program summary: Solomon Islands. CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. WorldFish, Solomon Islands. AAS-2012-08.

The Program will achieve impact at multiple scales (household, community, province and national as well as amongst program countries) through pathways that include partnerships, knowledge sharing and learning. In Solomon Islands significant benefits will be achieved through direct engagement with partners, including communities in specific research sites in selected program hubs. Of a total population of just over half a million people, 75% of Solomon Islanders are subsistence-oriented small holder farmers and fishers. Most people live on the coastal margins of the almost 1000 island archipelago while those that live inland have little access to marine resources. More than 70% of women and 50% of men are engaged in subsistence agriculture while 50% of women and 90% of men are engaged in fishing activities. In this context aquatic agricultural systems provide an essential source of income, food and well-being for a large part of the population.

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13.

Ratner, B.D. ; Barman, B. ; Cohen, P. ; Mam, K. ; Nagoli, J. ; Allison, E.H. 2012.
Strengthening governance across scales in aquatic agricultural systems. CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems. Penang, Malaysia. Working Paper. AAS-2012-10.

Aquatic agricultural systems in developing countries face increasing competition from multiple stakeholders operating from local to national and regional scales over rights to access and use natural resources—land, water, wetlands, and fisheries—essential to rural livelihoods. A key implication is the need to strengthen governance to enable equitable decision-making amidst such competition, building capacities for resilience and transformations that reduce poverty. This paper provides a simple framework to analyze the governance context for aquatic agricultural system development focused on three dimensions: stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and mechanisms of accountability. Case studies from Cambodia, Bangladesh, Malawi/Mozambique, and Solomon Islands illustrate the application of these concepts to fisheries and aquaculture livelihoods in the broader context of intersectoral and cross-scale governance interactions.

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14.

Little, D.C. ; Barman, B.K. ; Belton, B. ; Beveridge, M.C. ; Bush, S.J. ; Dabaddle, L. ; Demaine, H. ; Edwards, P. ; Haque, M.M. ; Kibria, G. ; Morales, E. ; Murray, F.J. ; Leschen, W.A. ; Nandeesha, M.C. ; Sukadi, F. 2012.
Alleviating poverty through aquaculture: progress, opportunities and improvements. p. 719-783. In: Subasinghe, R.R.; Arthur, J.R.; Bartley, D.M.; De Silva, S.S.; Halwart, M.; Hishamunda, N.; Mohan, C.V.; Sorgeloos, P. (eds.) Farming the waters for people and food. Proceedings of the Globlal Conference on Aquaculture 2010. Phuket, Thailand. 22-25 September 2010. FAO, Rome and NACA, Bangkok.

Significant changes in our understanding of the interrelationships between aquaculture and poverty have occurred in the last decade. In particular, there is a growing realization that the impacts of aquaculture need to be assessed from a value-chain perspective rather than through a narrow production focus. In recent years, understandings of poverty and the forms, outcomes and importance of aquaculture have also shifted. Terms in current use are first clarified, including those related to scale and location of aquaculture. The evolution of aquaculture from traditional to modern forms and its role as a central feature or more secondary part of household livelihoods are considered. Definitions of poverty and resilience and the potential roles of aquaculture in supporting poorer people are discussed in the light of recent research. The role and impacts of targeted interventions to support poverty alleviation are discussed and the potential negative impacts of aquaculture on poor peoples’ livelihoods are presented. The concept of “well-being” is presented to support interpretation of the potential impacts of aquaculture on food and nutritional security. Strategies to ensure self sufficiency of aquatic foods at the household, community, national and international scale are considered. Access and food security issues affecting aquaculture and capture fisheries and the nature of farming are critiqued in the light of a broader literature. The role of ponds in meeting broader nutritional security needs and within rural livelihoods is discussed and the importance of incorporation into both local and more extended value chains examined. Since its take off as a major food-producing activity in the last few decades, aquaculture in many places remains a family business. Private governance through certification has emerged as a potential game changer in aquaculture, bringing with it the potential for exclusion of poorer producers from global value chains and associated implications for poverty alleviation. A distinction between the dynamic changes accompanying quasi-commercial and commercial aquaculture development, often in transforming economies, is contrasted with the incremental benefits associated with “quasi-peasant” aquaculture previously most associated with poverty alleviation through interventions supported by national and international organizations. A rethink regarding how poverty is most effectively reduced or its alleviation supported through aquaculture by supporting actors within value chains rather than with a sole-producer focus is advanced. An agenda allied to that proposed in the World Development Report 2008 (World Bank, 2007) for agriculture generally is proposed. This assesses the importance of aquaculture development as part of the measures to mitigate water scarcity and to support sustainable intensification of food production generally, while acknowledging the need to strengthen rural-urban linkages and continue the development of appropriate safety nets for the poorest groups.

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15.

Rimmer, M.A. ; Phillips, M.J. ; Padiyar, P.A. ; Kokarkin, C. ; Raharjo, S. ; Bahrawi, S. ; Desyana, C. 2012.
Cooperation in aquaculture rehabilitation and development in Aceh, Indonesia. Development in Practice 22(1): 91-97.

Post-tsunami rehabilitation and reconstruction activities in Aceh have been criticised as focusing on vertical reporting at the expense of lateral coordination, leading in some cases to ‘overlaps and redundancies, mistargeting and hastily planned and implemented programs’. Our experience is that effective coordination between implementing agencies, linked to appropriate Indonesian government agencies, can effectively improve the delivery of services, in this case to coastal aquaculture farmers in Aceh. Most importantly, in an environment where numerous agencies are undertaking rehabilitation activities across a broad geographic area, this approach enables the provision of a consistent and standardized technical message to farmers.

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16.

Belton, B. ; Haque, M.M. ; Little, D.C. 2012.
Does size matter? Reassessing the relationship between aquaculture and poverty in Bangladesh. Journal of Development Studies [online first].

Aquaculture has long been promoted by development institutions in Bangladesh on the understanding that it can alleviate poverty. Most of this attention has focused on forms of the activity commonly referred to as ‘small-scale’. This article draws on concepts from the literature on agricultural growth and elaborates a typology of aquaculture based on relations of production which suggests that, in Bangladesh, quasi-capitalist forms of aquaculture may possess greater potential to reduce poverty and enhance food security than the quasi-peasant modes of production generally assumed to do so. The implications of this conclusion are explored.

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17.

Phillips, M. ; Rogers, W. ; Downing, W. ; Beveridge, M.C.M. ; Padiyar, P.A. ; Karim, M. ; Subasinghe, R. 2011.
Inclusive aquaculture: business at the bottom of the aquatic pyramid. FAO Aquaculture Newsletter 48: 44-46.

Through a SIDA -funded project on small-scale fisheries FAO and partners have been supporting WorldFish research into small-scale aquaculture investment. Studies of projects in Bangladesh, India and Indonesia suggest significant outcomes from investment, and start to show the potential for new avenues for investment in aquaculture that have potential to deliver not only aquaculture products and profitable businesses for smallholders, but also social and economic goals. Some of the highlights are provided in this article.

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18.

Phillips, M. ; Collis, W. ; Demaine, H. ; Flores-Nava, A. ; Gautier, D. ; Hough, C. ; Luu, L.T. ; Merican, Z. ; Padiya, P.A. ; Palmer, R. ; Pant, J. ; Pickering, T. ; Secretan, P. ; Umesh, N.R. 2012.
Servicing the aquaculture sector: role of state and private sectors. p. 627-642. In: Subasinghe, R.R.; Arthur, J.R.; Bartley, D.M.; De Silva, S.S.; Halwart, M.; Hishamunda, N.; Mohan, C.V.; Sorgeloos, P. (eds.) Farming the waters for people and food. Proceedings of the Globlal Conference on Aquaculture 2010. Phuket, Thailand. 22-25 September 2010. FAO, Rome and NACA, Bangkok.

This paper was prepared by a group of authors of complementary experiences and presented during the Thematic Session V: Improving knowledge and information sharing, research and extension in aquaculture at the Global Conference on Aquaculture 2010, Farming the Waters for People and Food held in Phuket, Thailand on 22–25 September 2010. The paper, which draws particularly on experiences in Asia, the Pacific and Europe, reviews the role of aquaculture services, recent changes in requirements and delivery of services, and future opportunities and needs, with special reference to roles and responsibilities of state and private sectors. It concludes with recommendations drawn from the discussions at the conference, where the importance of investment in services across the sector was emphasized, noting the particular significance of equitable service delivery to smaller aquaculture enterprises in developing countries, including emerging aquaculture countries in Africa.

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19.

Brummett, R.E. ; Beveridge, M.C.M. ; Cowx, I.G. 2012.
Functional aquatic ecosystems, inland fisheries and the Millennium Development Goals. Fish and Fisheries [online first].

Freshwater allocation in an environment of increasing demand and declining quality and availability is a major societal challenge. While biodiversity and the needs of local communities are often in congruence, the over-riding necessity of meeting national demands for power, food and, increasingly, mitigation of the hydrological effects of climate change, often supersedes these. Sophisticated models of ecosystem function to establish environmental flows are difficult to implement and consequently have generally failed to reduce rates of biodiversity and habitat loss, resulting in disenfranchisement of local communities resulting from dam construction and water abstraction for industry and agriculture. There are no agreed standards upon which a fairer allocation of resources can be made and thus a pragmatic approach to the resolution of these conflicts is clearly needed. While having generally negative impacts on biodiversity and traditional lifestyles, creation of new infrastructure and active management generates national economic growth and much-needed employment. Intensification of usage in watersheds already expropriated for human enterprise can spare land needed for the biodiversity that will fuel adaptation for the future. Taking advantage of a range of mitigation technologies and building their cost into the investment plans for water management infrastructure can improve the cost/benefit ratio of water control infrastructure and may be a more practical and efficacious approach to the valuation of fisheries and the maintenance of other essential services from functional aquatic ecosystems.

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20.

Fontaine, B. ; van Achterberg, K. ; Alonso-Zarazaga, M.A. ; Araujo, R. ; Asche, M. ; Aspöck, U. ; Audisio, P. ; Aukema, B. ; Bailly, N. et al. 2012.
New species in the old world: Europe as a frontier in biodiversity exploration, a test bed for 21st century taxonomy. PLOS One 7(5): e36881.

The number of described species on the planet is about 1.9 million, with ca. 17,000 new species described annually, mostly from the tropics. However, taxonomy is usually described as a science in crisis, lacking manpower and funding, a politically acknowledged problem known as the Taxonomic Impediment. Using data from the Fauna Europaea database and the Zoological Record, we show that contrary to general belief, developed and heavily-studied parts of the world are important reservoirs of unknown species. In Europe, new species of multicellular terrestrial and freshwater animals are being discovered and named at an unprecedented rate: since the 1950s, more than 770 new species are on average described each year from Europe, which add to the 125,000 terrestrial and freshwater multicellular species already known in this region. There is no sign of having reached a plateau that would allow for the assessment of the magnitude of European biodiversity. More remarkably, over 60% of these new species are described by non-professional taxonomists. Amateurs are recognized as an essential part of the workforce in ecology and astronomy, but the magnitude of non-professional taxonomist contributions to alpha-taxonomy has not been fully realized until now. Our results stress the importance of developing a system that better supports and guides this formidable workforce, as we seek to overcome the Taxonomic Impediment and speed up the process of describing the planetary biodiversity before it is too late.

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21.

Merino, G. ; Barange, M. ; Blanchard, J.L. ; Harle, J. ; Holmes, R. ; Allen, I. ; Allison, E.H. ; Badjeck, M.C. et al. 2012.
Can marine fisheries and aquaculture meet fish demand from a growing human population in a changing climate?. Global Environmental Change [online first].

Expansion in the world's human population and economic development will increase future demand for fish products. As global fisheries yield is constrained by ecosystems productivity and management effectiveness, per capita fish consumption can only be maintained or increased if aquaculture makes an increasing contribution to the volume and stability of global fish supplies. Here, we use predictions of changes in global and regional climate (according to IPCC emissions scenario A1B), marine ecosystem and fisheries production estimates from high resolution regional models, human population size estimates from United Nations prospects, fishmeal and oil price estimations, and projections of the technological development in aquaculture feed technology, to investigate the feasibility of sustaining current and increased per capita fish consumption rates in 2050. We conclude that meeting current and larger consumption rates is feasible, despite a growing population and the impacts of climate change on potential fisheries production, but only if fish resources are managed sustainably and the animal feeds industry reduces its reliance on wild fish. Ineffective fisheries management and rising fishmeal prices driven by greater demand could, however, compromise future aquaculture production and the availability of fish products.

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22.

Hüsken, S.M.C. ; Heck, S. 2012.
The 'Fish Trader+' model: reducing female traders' vulnerability to HIV. African Journal of AIDS Research 11(1): 17-26.

Analysis from research and practice in Africa shows that fishing communities are hardly reached by HIV-related services, education, and business services, partly because of the efforts and costs involved and a lack of good practice in reaching out to these often remote areas. At the same time, fish traders, especially women, travel regularly to remote fishing camps to purchase fish. Although female fish traders may be exposed to HIV, violence and abuse in their interactions and relationships with fishermen, economic necessity keeps them in this trade. Good health among fisherfolk is a basic mainstay of productive and sustainable fisheries, providing food and income to fishing communities and the nation at large. However, these benefits are severely at risk as per-capita fish supplies in several African countries are declining, and fisherfolk are among the populations most vulnerable to HIV and AIDS. Under the regional programme ‘Fisheries and HIV/AIDS in Africa: Investing in sustainable solutions,’ WorldFish conducted a socioeconomic assessment in the Kafue Flats fishery in Zambia to identify factors related to HIV/AIDS vulnerability among people in the fishing communities, particularly female fish traders. The study identified a variety of factors, hence the ‘Fish Trader+’ model of intervention was developed to reduce female fish traders’ vulnerability to HIV by building on their economic rationale through the formation of savings groups. This article outlines the implementation of the Fish Trader+ model in Zambia and examines its potential to empower female fish traders so as to reduce poverty and vulnerability to HIV in fishing communities.

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23.

Thilsted, S.H. 2012.
The potential of nutrient-rich small fish species in aquaculture to improve human nutrition and health. p. 57-73. In: Subasinghe, R.R.; Arthur, J.R.; Bartley, D.M.; De Silva, S.S.; Halwart, M.; Hishamunda, N.; Mohan, C.V.; Sorgeloos, P. (eds.) Farming the waters for people and food. Proceedings of the Globlal Conference on Aquaculture 2010. Phuket, Thailand. 22-25 September 2010. FAO, Rome and NACA, Bangkok.

Small fish are a common food and an integral part of the everyday carbohydraterich diets of many population groups in poor countries. These populations also suffer from undernutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies – the hidden hunger. Small fish species, as well as the little oil, vegetables and spices with which they are cooked enhance diet diversity. Small fish are a rich source of animal protein, essential fatty acids, vitamins and minerals. Studies in rural Bangladesh and Cambodia showed that small fish made up 50–80 percent of total fish intake in the peak fish production season. Although consumed in small quantities, the frequency of small fish intake was high. As many small fish species are eaten whole; with head, viscera and bones, they are particularly rich in bioavailable calcium, and some are also rich in vitamin A, iron and zinc. A traditional daily meal of rice and sour soup, made with the iron-rich fish, “trey changwa plieng” (Mekong flying barb, Esomus longimanus), with the head intact can meet 45 percent of the daily iron requirement of a Cambodian woman. Small fish are a preferred food, supplying multiple essential nutrients and with positive perceptions for nutrition, health and well-being. Thus, in areas with fisheries resources and habitual fish intake, there is good scope to include micronutrient-rich small fish in agricultural policy and programmes, thereby increasing intakes which can lead to improved nutrition and health. The results of many studies and field trials conducted in Bangladesh with carps and small fish species have shown that the presence of native fish in pond polyculture and the stocking of the vitamin A-rich small fish, “mola” (mola carplet, Amblypharyngodon mola), did not decrease the total production of carps; however, the nutritional quality of the total fish production improved greatly. In addition, mola breeds in the pond, and partial, frequent harvesting of small quantities is practiced, favouring home consumption. A production of only 10 kg/pond/year of mola in the estimated four million small, seasonal ponds in Bangladesh can meet the annual recommended intake of six million children. Successful aquaculture trials with polyculture of small and large fish species have also been conducted in rice fields and wetlands. Thus, aquaculture has a large, untapped potential to combat hidden hunger. To make full use of this potential, further data on nutrient bioavailability, intra-household seasonal consumption, nutrient analyses, cleaning, processing and cooking methods of small fish species are needed. Advocacy, awareness and nutrition education on the role small fish can play in increasing diet diversity and micronutrient intakes must be strengthened. Measures to develop and implement sustainable, lowcost technologies for the management, conservation, production, preservation, availability and accessibility of small fish must be undertaken. Also, an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of micronutrient-rich small fish species in combating micronutrient deficiencies using the Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALYs) framework should be carried out.

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24.

Haque, A.B.M.M. ; Visser, L.E. ; Dey, M.M. 2012.
Institutional arrangements in seasonal floodplain management under community-based aquaculture in Bangladesh. Asian Journal of Agriculture and Development 8(1): 1-18.

Seasonal floodplains under private and public ownership in the Indo-Ganges river basin provide food and income for millions of people in Bangladesh. Floodplain ownership regimes are diverse, covering the whole spectrum from public to private ownership. The paper compares community-based fish culture projects in these floodplains and analyzes the institutional arrangements of three different Floodplain Management Committees (FMC). The paper aimed to understand the complex institutional relations that govern ownership, access, and control of the floodplains under community-based fish culture (CBFC) to increase fish production and the livelihoods of the poor. We followed the stakeholders representing the various institutions and organizations such as the Department of Fisheries (DoF), Department of Land (DoL), and FMC. Other important stakeholders were the lease-holders of public water bodies in the floodplains, private landowners, seasonal and professional fishers. The analysis demonstrates a significant increase of benefits to all stakeholders, including the poor, through the sharing of benefits derived from their involvment in the project. The willingness of different social classes to work together, the adoption of new technologies, and the societal embeddedness of local government institutions appear to be important inputs for policy making.

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25.

Ratner, B.D. ; Oh, E.J.V. ; Pomeroy, R.S. 2012.
Navigating change: Second-generation challenges of small-scale fisheries co-management in the Philippines and Vietnam. Journal of Environmental Management 107: 131–139.

Early efforts to apply the concept of fisheries co-management in Southeast Asia focused primarily on building the effectiveness of local management institutions and advocating the merits of the approach so that it would be applied in new sites, while gradually learning and adapting to a range of obstacles in practice. Today, with co-management widely embraced by the research community and adopted as policy by an increasing number of governments, a second-generation perspective has emerged. This perspective is distinguished by efforts to navigate and influence change in the broader institutional and governance context: (a) a more sophisticated appreciation of politics, power relations, and the role of the state, (b) efforts to manage resource competition beyond the fisheries sector, (c) building institutions for adaptation and learning, and (d) recognizing divergent values and goals influencing fisheries management. This paper traces the evolution of this second-generation perspective, noting how it has built on learning from early practice and how it has been cross-fertilized by theoretical innovations in related fields, notably resilience thinking and political ecology. We illustrate this evolution through analysis of experience in the Philippines, with a relatively long experience of learning and adaptation in fisheries co-management practice, and Vietnam, where fisheries co-management policies have been embraced more recently. Characterizing the second-generation perspective helps identify points of convergence in the research and policy community about what needs attention, providing a basis for more systematic cross-country and cross-regional learning.

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26.

Ratner, B.D. ; Allison, E.H. 2012.
Wealth, rights, and resilience: An agenda for governance reform in small-scale fisheries. Development Policy Review 30(4): 371-398.

The diversity of social, ecological and economic characteristics of smallscale fisheries in developing countries means that context-specific assessments are required to understand and address shortcomings in their governance. This article contrasts three perspectives on governance reform focused alternately on wealth, rights and resilience, and argues that – far from being incompatible – these perspectives serve as useful counterweights to one another, and together can serve to guide policy responses. In order to better appreciate the diversity in governance contexts for small-scale fisheries it puts forward a simple analytical framework focused on stakeholder representation, distribution of power, and accountability, and then outlines principles for identifying and deliberating reform options among local stakeholders.

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27.

Williams, M.J. ; Agbayani, R. ; Bhujel, R. ; Bondad-Reantaso, M.G. ; Brugère, C. ; Choo, P.S. ; Dhont, J. ; Galmiche-Tejeda, A. ; Ghulam, K. ; Kusakabe, K. ; Little, D. ; Nandeesha, M.C. ; Sorgeloos, P. ; Weeratunge, N. ; Williams, S. ; Xu. P. 2012.
Sustaining aquaculture by developing human capacity and enhancing opportunities for women. p. 785-874. In: Subasinghe, R.R.; Arthur, J.R.; Bartley, D.M.; De Silva, S.S.; Halwart, M.; Hishamunda, N.; Mohan, C.V.; Sorgeloos, P. (eds.) Farming the waters for people and food. Proceedings of the Globlal Conference on Aquaculture 2010. Phuket, Thailand. 22-25 September 2010. FAO, Rome and NACA, Bangkok.

Women are active participants in aquaculture supply chains, but a dearth of gender-disaggregated information hampers accurate understanding of their contribution. Research results and FAO National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) fact sheets show that female participation rates vary by type and scale of enterprise and country. Women are frequently active in hatcheries and dominate fish processing plant labourers. Women’s work in small-scale aquaculture frequently is unrecognized, under or unpaid. Most aquaculture development projects are not gender sensitive, and aquaculture success stories often do not report gender dimensions; projects can fail if their designs do not include gender. Gender should be put firmly on the policy agenda and built into normative instruments, old and new, complemented by the collection of gender-disaggregated data for aquaculture supply chains. Women should be empowered through gender equity in access to financial, natural, training and market resources. Women in aquaculture should not be stereotyped as “small-scale” and poor. Women are often hampered by systemic barriers such as lack of legal rights. Women should be encouraged to build their management, leadership and entrepreneural skills. In circumstances where rural men have migrated for work, small-scale aquaculture has proven a suitable livelihood option to reduce the pressure on women. Because postharvest processing and fish trade are feminized occupations, gender equity deserves special attention in fair trade and fish certification schemes. HCD and gender are receiving more attention in rehabilitation efforts to assist survivors from disease and natural disasters.

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28.

Nasr Alla, A. ; Kenawy, D. ; El-Naggar, G. ; Beveridge, M. ; van der Heijden, P.G.M. 2012.
Evaluation of the use of fresh water by four Egyptian farms applying integrated aquaculture-agriculture: study report. Report number CDI-12-005 Wageningen UR Centre for Development Innovation.

This report describes a study done in 2010 by researchers of WorldFish on water use in Egyptian farms that apply aquaculture – agriculture integration. Two of the four farms that were monitored derived the main income from farming and selling fish, the two other farms were mainly agricultural farms that used reservoirs that were built to store irrigation water for growing fish. The volume of water in which fish were raised from fingerling to market size and that was subsequently used to irrigate agriculture crops was estimated. The water quality was monitored, the quantity and value of the fish and the value of the agricultural crop were determined. Estimates were made of the amount of fertilizer that was saved by growing fish in irrigation water.

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29.

van der Heijden, P.G.M. ; Nasr Alla, A. ; Kenawy, D. 2012.
Water use at integrated aquaculture-agriculture farms: experiences with limited water resources in Egypt. Global Aquaculture Advocate July/Aug: 28-31: 28-31.

Fish farming in Egypt is not formally recognized as an agricultural activity, so aquaculture cannot use water from irrigation canals. However, fish are raised as primary or secondary crops in combination with fruit and other plant crops. A study by WorldFish found farms could efficiently use well water to intensively raise tilapia in aerated tanks and use the effluent to irrigate fruit trees, vegetables and flowers. Two other farms used water from nearby Nile irrigation canals to fill water storage reservoirs stocked with tilapia. Crops and fruit were the main source of revenue for these farms, and fish reflected a minor secondary crop.

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30.

Subasinghe, R. ; Ahmad, I. ; Kassam, L. ; Krishnan, S. ; Nyandat, B. ; Padiyar, A. ; Phillips, M. ; Reantaso, M. ; Miao, W. ; Yamamoto, K. 2012.
Protecting small-scale farmers: a reality within a globalized economy?. p. 705-717. In: Subasinghe, R.R.; Arthur, J.R.; Bartley, D.M.; De Silva, S.S.; Halwart, M.; Hishamunda, N.; Mohan, C.V.; Sorgeloos, P. (eds.) Farming the waters for people and food. Proceedings of the Globlal Conference on Aquaculture 2010. Phuket, Thailand. 22-25 September 2010. FAO, Rome and NACA, Bangkok.

Aquaculture is still the fastest-growing food-producing sector and plays an important role in enhancing global food security and alleviating poverty. Tens of millions of people are engaged in aquaculture production, the majority of whom are small-scale farmers who have limited resources and are faced with difficulties due to increasing globalization and the resultant trade liberalization of aquaculture products. Despite these challenges, small-scale farmers remain innovative and continue to contribute to global aquaculture production.

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31.

Beare, D. ; Machiels, M. 2012.
Beam trawlermen take feet off gas in response to oil price hikes. ICES Journal of Marine Science [online first].

Average towing speed by Dutch beam trawlermen has fallen substantially between 2002 and 2009. Changes in towing speed are related to changes in oil price. The price of their valuable main target species (sole, Solea vulgaris) did not influence towing speed. The aim of this Short Communication is to explore the hypothesis that changes in trawling speeds are directly related to changes in oil price using time-series data.

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32.

Descheemaeker, K. ; Molden, D. ; Bunting, S. ; Bindraban, P. ; Muthuri, C. ; Sinclair, F. ; Beveridge, M. ; van Brakel, M. ; Herrero, M. ; Fleiner, R. ; Clement, F. ; Boelee, E. 2012.
Increasing water productivity in agriculture. p. 140-164. In: Boelee, E. (ed.). Managing Agroecosystems for Sustainable Water and Food Security. CABI. Cambridge.

Water productivity is defined as the amount of agricultural output per unit of water depleted and can be applied to crops, trees livestock and fish. This chapter reviews challenges and opportunities to improve water productivity in socially equitable ways and in different agro-climatic systems. In areas with ample water supply, developing new and making better use of existing water resources are options, whereas in areas with physical water scarcity, better water harvesting and storage is warranted. However, in all situations it is important to think beyond biophysical technologies and foster enabling institutions to ensure adoption of improved practices and equitable and sustainable benefits. Further improvements can be obtained from reducing post-harvest losses and waster of food in both developing and industrialized economies. Both in irrigated and rainfed cropping systems water productivity can be improved by choosing well-adapted crop types, reducing unproductive water losses, and maintain healthy, vigorously growing crops through optimized water, nutrient, and agronomic management.

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33.

Nagabhatla, N. ; Beveridge, M. ; Mahfuzul Haque, A.B.M. ; Nguyen-Khoa, S. ; van Brakel, M. 2012.
Multiple water use as an approach for increased basin productivity and improved adaptation: a case study from Bangladesh. International Journal of River Basin Management 10(1): 121-136.

This study, supported by the Challenge Program Water and Food (CPWF-Project 35), demonstrates the case of multiple-use of water through seasonal aquaculture interventions for improved rice–fish production systems in the Bangladesh floodplains. The project focused on community-based fish culture initiatives, increasingly adopted in the agro-ecological zones of the major floodplains of the Padma, Testa, and Brahmaputra basin. The productivity of water and fish is used as an indicator to explain this case. We hypothesize that seasonal aquaculture supported by the management of floodplains for multiple-use of water can significantly increase the productivity of rice–fish systems. Recognizing the need for innovative ways to manage human-dominated landscapes and climate-sensitive ecosystems such as floodplains, we have analysed seasonal aquaculture interventions along with local adaptation of water management strategies, including the consideration of groundwater mechanisms. The results, supported by quantitative analysis and qualitative arguments, demonstrate the significant contribution of seasonal aquaculture in improving the rice–fish production systems of the selected floodplain sites. This was achieved through the increased productivity of water and fish and the reduction of the risk posed by arsenic contamination. The study is also illustrative of the diversification in livelihood-generating activities to cope with the extended period of flooding cycle in the region. We highlight the value of multiple resource-use approaches to enhance the social and ecological resilience of floodplains, and the need to re-consider basin water management options to recognize the water requirements of other sources of food such as fish produced by capture fisheries and aquaculture.

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34.

Béné, C. ; Phillips, M. ; Allison, E.H. 2012.
The forgotten service: food as an ecosystem service from estuarine and coastal zones. Wolanski, E. ; McLusky, D. (eds.) Treatise on Estuarine and Coastal Science. Ecological Economics of Estuaries and Coasts. 12: 147–180.

In this chapter, we review in detail the existing body of literature and knowledge related to the provision of food in estuaries and coastal zones. Both aquatic and terrestrial commodities are considered. The chapter highlights not only the importance of the terrestrial zone in overall food provision but also the substantial contribution of aquatic coastal resources. The various problems that the coastal zone faces in sustaining this important provisioning service in the face of increasing pressure and demands from other sectors are highlighted. Despite the important contribution of aquatic resources to food provision, these are often undervalued and underrepresented in coastal and national planning processes.

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35.

Finlayson, M. ; Bunting, S.W. ; Beveridge, M. ; Tharme, R. ; van Brakel, M. ; Atapattu, S. ; Coates, D. ; Nguyen-Khoa, S. 2012.
Wetland agroecosystems. p. 94-118. In: Boelee, E. (ed.). Managing Agroecosystems for Sustainable Water and Food Security. CABI. Cambridge.

Commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services is then reviewed. Provisioning services, notably fish and water for irrigation or domestic and industrial purposes constitute important benefits derived by humanity from wetlands, whilst recognition is growing that supporting, regulating and cultural services supported by wetlands are critical for sustaining social-economic systems and ensuring human well-being. Examples of wetland ecosystem services contributing to water and food security are highlighted and likely consequences resulting from disruption to stocks and flows of these services discussed. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic pressures, notably land-use change, disruption to regional hydrological regimes owing to abstraction and impoundment, pollution and excessive nutrient loading, invasive species introduction and overexploitation of biomass, plants and animals.

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