The Aquaculture for Income and Nutrition (AIN) project implemented by World Fish and funded by USAID, aims at increasing aquaculture production in 20 districts of Southern Bangladesh (Greater Khulna, Greater Barisal, Greater Jessore and Greater Faridpur) to reduce poverty and enhance nutritional status. As part of its initial scoping activities World Fish commissioned this value chain assessment on the market chains of carp fish seed (spawn, fry and fingerlings) in the southern region of Bangladesh.
ACIAR, in collaboration with the Secretariat of the Pacific Community (SPC), organised a symposium on tropical sea cucumber aquaculture at SPC Headquarters in Noumea, New Caledonia, in February 2011. Although the principal focus was on ACIAR work, particularly in the Asia–Pacific region, researchers from other parts of the world were invited to provide additional expertise. The symposium identified knowledge gaps and highlighted researchable topics for future developments in sea cucumber aquaculture.
A account is given of the aquaculture courses available at the Aquaculture Research and Training Asian Institute of Technology, describing also the facilities and research directions which include a scheme to recycle seepage, excreta reuse by duckweed, integrated farming and water hyacinth.
Aquaculture is needed to meet future demand for fish and other seafood, but sustainable growth requires we better understand and manage risks. Risks are aplenty in aquaculture, some of which we are only now beginning to understand and address. The most important, from a development perspective, are those that make the lives of vulnerable smallholders worse rather than better.
Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance.
The aim of this article is to compare two extremes of approaches taken to turtle culture projects. At one extreme is the capital-intensive operation aimed at realizing a profit, e.g., that of Mariculture Ltd. on Grand Cayman Island. At the other end of the scale is the small, village-industry operation which has been tried or is still being tested in several developing regions. While commercial viability may also be an aim of this latter approach, other considerations seem to be important in assessing success, e.g., the provision of employment.
Significant changes in our understanding of the interrelationships between aquaculture and poverty have occurred in the last decade. In particular, there is a growing realization that the impacts of aquaculture need to be assessed from a value-chain perspective rather than through a narrow production focus. In recent years, understandings of poverty and the forms, outcomes and importance of aquaculture have also shifted. Terms in current use are first clarified, including those related to scale and location of aquaculture.
Zooplankton are an important food source for many species of fish. They can provide an inexpensive alternative to other commercial feeds. Zooplankton have several advantages, among them a faster growth and greater feed efficiency for some species. The flavor and texture of fish are also improved with zooplankton as feed. Further research is needed on the chemical composition of zooplankton, the development of zooplankton-based dry diets and the effects of the replacement of fish meal with zooplankton meal for commercial aquaculture species.