It is time to recognize the crucial role of small-scale farmers in Asian aquaculture production and trade. The socially and economically important smallscale sector – the “mainstay” of Asian aquaculture – is innovative, but faced with constraints in modern markets. The sector needs investment from public and private sectors to compete and thrive. Another challenge is to develop certification programs in ways that promote responsible aquaculture expansion with due consideration to small-scale farming.
Fish has been a staple food for over a billion people. Its demand is increasing due to growing population and awareness about health benefits of aquatic animal food. Disappointingly, wild catch worldwide is on the decline and aquaculture is emerging as the only solution. It grew at 9%/yr in the last 10 years becoming the fastest growing food production sector. At present, aquaculture produces only about 45 million t per year but it needs to be doubled by 2030 to meet its growing demand. Asia produces over 85% of the global farmed fish - mostly by small-scale farmers.
The potential of small-scale aquaculture (SSA) to contribute to development goals including poverty reduction and improved food security has been widely discussed. These accounts emphasize the following characteristics of SSA: the relative poverty of practising households; the subsistence or semi-subsistence nature of the activity; its role as a means of agricultural diversification; its contribution to food security; family ownership and operation of production or reliance on predominantly family labour; and utilization of small areas of land and/or water.
An account is given of shrimp farming and its benefits to India, discussing effective land use, the use of naturalshrimp seed resources, foreign exchange and employment in rural areas.
Tropical sea cucumber mariculture has potential to become a profitable industry and contribute towards natural population replenishment. Here, we synthesise the fields of progress, current impediments and research opportunities in tropical sea cucumber aquaculture arising from recent studies and an Indo-Pacific symposium. We present novel comparisons of data from hatcheries, earthen ponds and sea pens from published and unpublished studies in various countries. Of the few tropical species to have been cultured, only the sandfish Holothuria scabra has been bred extensively.
Culture of shrimp, mainly Penaeus monodon, makes an important contribution to Bangladesh's aquaculture industry. Shrimp hatcheries are the foundation on which the shrimp industry is built. Hatchery performance and management therefore has extremely important implications for the long-term viability of the entire shrimp sector, especially given its vulnerability to diseases such as white spot syndrome virus (WSSV).
Asia is the leading aquaculture region in the world, contributing to 85% of total world aquaculture production. Of the top 10 aquaculture producing countries 9 are Asian with China accounting for more than 65% of Asian production. Aquaculture in Asia contribute more than 80% of an estimated 17-20 million aquaculture farmers in Asia providing livelihoods, food security and export earning power but at the same time there are growing problems with environmental impact from large numbers of small-scale producers and the difficulties in planning and management of further development.
WorldFish Incubator is a new and innovative program designed to support investment into sustainable small and medium-sized aquaculture enterprises in developing countries. It identifies suitable projects and facilitates technical and financial assistance, offering nurturing in sustainable aquaculture through its network of contacts. By leveraging the benefits of scale, WorldFish Incubator will help the aquaculture sector deliver on its promise to meet the growing demand for fish whilst ensuring equitable supplies and access for the poor.
At WorldFish, we work with an extensive network of donors and partners to create change for the millions who depend on fish in the developing world. Partnerships are essential to bring technologies and innovations to scale and achieve development impact. By 2025, WorldFish, together with our donors and partners, will improve the lives of 28 million people.
Wind and water power have a significant contribution to make to aquaculture and fish processing. Wind energy can provide mechanical power to operate pumps and aerators and can clso be used to generate electricity. Small-scalehydropower may be used to serve aquaculture in many ways wherever there is sufficient flow and fall of water. Additionally, refrigeration equipment and heat pumps may be driven by both wind and water power. The integration of these systems can serve energy needs in fish farming for processing, ice-making, mechanical power and electricity.