An examination is made of the applications of microcomputers to aquaculture research, considering in particular data storage and processing and also statistical analysis programmes. Reference is made to development projects with the aim of making use of modern, applied research methods to develop aquaculture technologies applicable for developing countries.
A discussion is presented as to the use of microcomputers in fishery science. Background information is given regarding the purchase of microcomputer hardware and various aspects to be considered are examined.
Egypt’s aquaculture production (921,585 tonnes in 2010) is by far the largest of any African country. The aquaculture sector, dominated by semi-intensive pond production of tilapia, makes a significant contribution to income, employment creation and food and nutrition security in the country, all of which are national priority areas given low per capita income levels, rising population, worsening food and nutrition security indicators, and official unemployment levels which have remained at around 10% for the last ten years.
The fisheries sector of Vietnam plays an important role in the social and economic development of the country. The sector contributes about 3% of the GDP and fish contributes about 40% of animal protein consumption in the country. In 1999, total fisheries production amounted to 1.8 million t. Of this, 1.2 million t was derived from marine capture fisheries and 0.6 million t from aquaculture. Fish exports were valued at US$971.12 million in the same year. Vietnam’s marine fisheries and coastal aquaculture have further potential for development.
Although it appears that the first recorded, scientifically oriented culture of tilapia was conducted in Kenya in 1924,of the current 30,000 ponds with a potential annual production of more than 7,000 tons, only 10% are functional producing 500 tons/annum. Tilapia tank culture at Baobab Farm is described in detail. The economics and prospectsof intensive culture in Kenya are considered.
Bivalve culture in Thailand is discussed, describing pilot hatchery operations at Prachuap.
A discussion is presented on developments in the sector of shrimp brackishwater pond culture in Java, considering intensification programs launched by the government and effects on small holders.
Social interactions often occur among living organisms, including aquatic animals. There is empirical evidence showing that social interactions may genetically affect phenotypes of individuals and their group mates. In this context, the heritable effect of an individual on the phenotype of another individual is known as an Indirect Genetic Effect (IGE). Selection for socially affected traits may increase response to artificial selection, but also affect rate of inbreeding.
A commercial breeding nucleus of coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) was established in Chile in 1997. This nucleus consists of two independent populations corresponding to different year-classes (even and odd, depending on the spawning year), which have been successfully selected for harvest weight (approximate genetic gain per generation of 10%). In order to constrain the buildup of inbreeding a strategy based on avoiding full-sib mating in each generation was used.
Throughout Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) there is broad recognition that fisheries and aquaculture make vital contributions to economic development, government revenue, food security and livelihoods.