While fisheries constitute a small part of the gross national product (GNP) in most nations in Asia, their role innational development is of considerable significance in terms of job employment, foreign exchange earnings, food supply and more importantly socioeconomic stability of the rural areas where the majority of Asian populations live.
Until recently, relatively little attention has been paid to the molecular biology and other biotechnological applications in fish compared with livestock and plants. Aquaculture is a relatively recent, although fast-growing industry. Unlike the livestock industry, which is based on a few species, there are around 25,000 species of fish, and over 170 aquatic species are presently being farmed. Efforts in basic and applied research therefore must be spread over a number of key organisms.
Forty per cent of the world population is settled in coastal zones, where much of industrial needs and world's food are produced. The influence of the sea on the environment and human livelihood is not restricted to the coastline- and mangrove belt. Indeed, its influence can be found up to 50 km further inland. Brackish water creates an environment in which continuous and dynamic flux impinges upon the stability of agricultural production systems and concomitant livelihood strategies.
This article reviews the past, present and future activities of the Network of Tropical Aquaculture Scientists (NTAS), an information network for individual scientists working on tropical aquaculture, especially on genetics, integrated agriculture-aquaculture farming systems and coastal aquaculture of tropical molluscs.
This paper assesses how aquaculture can contribute to sustainable food security for the low income in the developing world. Food security, defined as the physical and economic access, by all people at all times, to the basic food they need, is achieved when three conditions are met: sustainable and predictable food supply; access by all either through access to the means of production and/or through purchasing power; and adequate quality including nutritional quality, to support life functions.
Aquaculture pond models are reviewed. Empirical pond models can be used for the analysis of large pond datasets, whilel theoretical models are based on knowledge of the processes, underlying the system. Existing models deal with fish production in ponds, the foodweb and pond water quality. Most succesful models in terms of predictive ability and applicability in day-to-day management are models for dissolved oxygen and temperature. Fish growth models are constrained by difficulties in modeling food consumption and natural food quality.
Aquaculture is currently responsible for an insignificant proportion of total fish production in Uganda. However, given the increasing demand for fresh fish in urban and peri-urban araes, and threats to the supply of fish from natural catch fisheries, the potential exists for a strong market in aquaculture.
Aquatic resource systems with potential for aquaculture development in Ghana were demarcated: lagoons, bays and estuaries; rivers; lakes and large reservoirs; small water bodies; floodplains and swamps. Where available, areaestimates are given, together with data on existing aquaculture and fisheries activities. Potential technologies for further development are briefly pointed out.
Traditional pond construction and aquaculture technologies mandate the exploitation of limited water resources. The result is often a lowering of water qualilty and quantity available for alternative uses and users. Rainfed ponds might offer a non-polluting alternative, and make fish farming feasible for a wider variety of potential adopters. Microclimatic effects of holding water on the land might also create positive environment impacts on the farm itself, and over a larger area if widely implemented.
Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) breeding has a long tradition in Hungary. However, recent economic changes in Eastern Europe and new developments in aquaculture necessitated the need for ensuring quality of the brood stock used in hatcheries and the legal and institutional frameworks needed to implement the program. In addition to good research and development programs and gene banking, it became essential to establish an appropriate legal framework, organize, coordinate and control breeding activities, and provide financial support.