Worldwide, there are many substantial coastal aquaculture and stock enhancement operations based on collection of wild juveniles. These include: growout of shrimp (Penaeidae), milkfish (Chanos chanos), eels (Anguilla spp.), yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata), southern bluefin tuna (Thunnus maccoyii), edible oysters (Ostreidae) and mussels (Mytilidae); stock enhancement of scallops (Pectinidae); and the culture of pearls in farmed blacklip pearl oysters (Pinctada margaritifera). The growout of wild puerulus larvae of spiny lobsters (Palinuridae) is also developing rapidly.
This paper attempts to review the use of antibiotics in aquaculture in Malaysia because of the heightened concerns over its use and abuse and its impact on human health and the environment. Health and environmental issues relating to antibiotic use and measures that can reduce or control the impacts are also discussed.
Over 5 years of participatory on-farm research, market access, profitability, farming systems productivity and economic sustainability were compared on 100 small-scale farms in Central Cameroon. Integration technology based on the use of agricultural by-products as fishpond inputs was the driver for intensification. Over all farms, fishpond productivity increased from 498 kg to 1609 kg fish/ha (2145 kg/ha/yr). During the project period, the number of active fish farmers increased from 15 to 192 (including 55 farms which participated only through information exchange).
Aquaculture is predicted to continue playing a major and ever increasing role in meeting human's needs for protein. Production systems in developing countries are largely based on the use of unimproved species and strains. As knowledge and experience are accumulated in the management, feeding and animal health issues of such production systems, the availability of genetically more productive stock becomes imperative in order to more effectively use the resources.
The Strategy on International Fisheries Research's activities on information and aquaculture in Asia, SubSaharan Africa, Latin and North America are presented.
Details are given of a standard format used by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program of the US Agency for International Development for the communication of experimental ideas. An example is given of the "Preliminary Proposal Format," which contains a list of information categories or headings as follows: Title; Objectives: Significance; Experimental design; Pond facilities; Stocking rate; Other inputs; Sampling plan; Hypotheses; Statistical methods; Duration; Water management; and Schedule.
The study compares the socioeconomic profile of fish and nonfish farming households in three different agroecological regions in Zimbabwe. Some of the direct socioeconomic factors that influence the adoption of small-scale fish farming in the areas are also identified.
The state of Assam in northeastern India has an excellent sub-tropical climate for the development of fresh water fish culture in a variety of aquatic bodies. Aquaculture not only plays an important role in nutrition but also in the rural economy of the State. A pilot project conducted with a group of resource poor tribal farmers revealed that a production of about 1 800 kg/ha/yr could be achieved from small seasonal homestead ponds through integrated use of locally available biological resources.
The snakehead (Channa striata ) is a common freshwater fish species in Malaysia. Details are given of a simple technique for breeding this species, suitable for small-scale farmers practising backyard aquaculture. Two techniques were used to induce spawning - the first used water level manipulation to simulate rain and the second used injected with human chorionic gonadotropic hormone. The former, more natural, spawning technique was found to provide a viable alternative for the small-scale farmer, being much simpler than hormone injection.
A summary is provided of a course introduced in 1987 at the Chaminuka Training Centre in Zimbabwe for training in rural aquaculture. The recruitment of trainees, aquaculture and rural development, the curriculum and practical training are outlined.