The Ganges–Brahmaputra River Delta is the world’s largest delta, stretching across Bangladesh and West Bengal in northeast India and supporting a population of over 250 million people. Of all the fish in these tropical delta waters, the Hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) holds a special place in the hearts and in the diets of people living in the region. The Hilsa is known locally as Macher Raja Ilish, or Hilsa the “king of fish” and has the honor of being the national fish of Bangladesh. Maintaining good supplies of wild Hilsa is an ongoing challenge in the face of threats from overfishing, habitat destruction and degradation, and the voracious appetite of an ever increasing population. Hilsa aquaculture may be one of the solutions.