Wastewater is reused and treated in four main types of farming in Vietnam: fish culture in 200 ha; rotation of rice and fish culture in 400 ha; land vegetables and aquatic vegetables.
A discussion is presented on the usefulness of secondary data in research in the field of agriculture, considering implications for the fisheries and aquaculture sectors. Four categories of secondary data are examined -- policy and development trends, food production, marketing, and food consumption. Guidelines are provided to help determine which type of data are most likely to be found.
Investigations in laboratory, tank and pond systems were carried out at teh Domasi Experimental Fish Farm, Zomba, Malawi to evaluate the liming properties of firewood (sterculia quinquiloba Garcke, Schumach) ash. This article suggested that firewood ash has potential both as a low-cost liming agent and as a phosphorous fertilizer for smallholder fish ponds in developing countries.
Aquaculture is a rapidly expanding sector of the global economy. Development of the industry under various national and regional jurisdictions has resulted in a diversity of regulatory frameworks. This manual has been produced in response to requests for guidance on the application of risk analysis with respect to aquaculture production.
The production of snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) from wild stocks and traditional culture systems has been declining in central Thailand, although they are on the increase in modern culture practices adopted in some provinces. Net yields of T. pectoralis in traditional systems are about a third of those in modern systems. The potential of T. pectoralis as a candidate for more intensive waste-fed polyculture appears promising if seed supply constraints can be removed.
Over 5 years of participatory on-farm research, market access, profitability, farming systems productivity and economic sustainability were compared on 100 small-scale farms in Central Cameroon. Integration technology based on the use of agricultural by-products as fishpond inputs was the driver for intensification. Over all farms, fishpond productivity increased from 498 kg to 1609 kg fish/ha (2145 kg/ha/yr). During the project period, the number of active fish farmers increased from 15 to 192 (including 55 farms which participated only through information exchange).
Aquaculture is predicted to continue playing a major and ever increasing role in meeting human's needs for protein. Production systems in developing countries are largely based on the use of unimproved species and strains. As knowledge and experience are accumulated in the management, feeding and animal health issues of such production systems, the availability of genetically more productive stock becomes imperative in order to more effectively use the resources.
The Strategy on International Fisheries Research's activities on information and aquaculture in Asia, SubSaharan Africa, Latin and North America are presented.
Details are given of a standard format used by the Pond Dynamics/Aquaculture Collaborative Research Support Program of the US Agency for International Development for the communication of experimental ideas. An example is given of the "Preliminary Proposal Format," which contains a list of information categories or headings as follows: Title; Objectives: Significance; Experimental design; Pond facilities; Stocking rate; Other inputs; Sampling plan; Hypotheses; Statistical methods; Duration; Water management; and Schedule.