Women are active participants in aquaculture supply chains, but a dearth of gender-disaggregated information hampers accurate understanding of their contribution. Research results and FAO National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) fact sheets show that female participation rates vary by type and scale of enterprise and country. Women are frequently active in hatcheries and dominate fish processing plant labourers. Women’s work in small-scale aquaculture frequently is unrecognized, under or unpaid.
Research by the authors examined the impacts of governmental and non-governmental standards on the ability of seafood producers and processors in Vietnam to access export markets. The Vietnamese government plays an important role in the governance of international seafood trade, but importing nations establish food safety standards and NGOs have also become involved. To assure market access, exporters must respond to buyers and certification systems that buyers adopt.
Aquaculture, the farming of aquatic organisms, provides close to 50% of the world's supply of seafood, with a value of U.S. $125 billion. It makes up 13% of the world's animal-source protein (excluding eggs and dairy) and employs an estimated 24 million people (1). With capture (i.e., wild) fisheries production stagnating, aquaculture may help close the forecast global deficit in fish protein by 2020.
Eco-certification is widely considered a tool for reducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but what are the likely environmental outcomes for the world’s fastest growing animal-food production sector? This article analyzes a number of eco-certification schemes based on species choice, anticipated share of the global seafood market, size of eligible producers, and targeted environmental impacts.
With globalisation, importing countries often demand greater transparency together with the need for accredited certification of imported products. Although harmful algal blooms (HABs) do not pose a serious problem in Malaysia, except for Sabah, steps must be taken to develop effective monitoring programmes for harmful algae and HAB toxins. This paper describes the status of HABs in Malaysia and the monitoring programmes implemented to ensure seafood safety. Measures taken to upgrade and improve HAB management are also discussed.
It is time to recognize the crucial role of small-scale farmers in Asian aquaculture production and trade. The socially and economically important smallscale sector – the “mainstay” of Asian aquaculture – is innovative, but faced with constraints in modern markets. The sector needs investment from public and private sectors to compete and thrive. Another challenge is to develop certification programs in ways that promote responsible aquaculture expansion with due consideration to small-scale farming.
This chapter examines pangasius catfish aquaculture in Vietnam in the context of changing social relations of production, European consumer trends and regulation. In particular we are interested in how the rise of 'sociotechnical' environmental regulatory networks in the form of quality standards and third-party certififcation have altered power relations between consumers and producers across global space.
Significant changes in our understanding of the interrelationships between aquaculture and poverty have occurred in the last decade. In particular, there is a growing realization that the impacts of aquaculture need to be assessed from a value-chain perspective rather than through a narrow production focus. In recent years, understandings of poverty and the forms, outcomes and importance of aquaculture have also shifted. Terms in current use are first clarified, including those related to scale and location of aquaculture.
Since 1991, the certification, release and maintenance of new species for aquaculture have become part of the national policy in China. During the past 15 years, this policy has been conducted and improved and has begun to show its significant role in Chinese fisheries. This paper describes the updated system of certification, release and maintenance of new species for aquaculture in China.
Small-scale aquaculture producers in developing countries are facing new opportunities and challenges related to market liberalization, globalization and increasingly stringent quality and safety requirements for their products, making it harder for them to access markets. Collective action through participation in farmers’ organizations (FOs) can provide an effective mechanism to assist small-scale producers overcome these challenges and contribute to and influence modern market chains and trade.