Women are active participants in aquaculture supply chains, but a dearth of gender-disaggregated information hampers accurate understanding of their contribution. Research results and FAO National Aquaculture Sector Overview (NASO) fact sheets show that female participation rates vary by type and scale of enterprise and country. Women are frequently active in hatcheries and dominate fish processing plant labourers. Women’s work in small-scale aquaculture frequently is unrecognized, under or unpaid.
This chapter examines pangasius catfish aquaculture in Vietnam in the context of changing social relations of production, European consumer trends and regulation. In particular we are interested in how the rise of 'sociotechnical' environmental regulatory networks in the form of quality standards and third-party certififcation have altered power relations between consumers and producers across global space.
Eco-certification is widely considered a tool for reducing environmental impacts of aquaculture, but what are the likely environmental outcomes for the world’s fastest growing animal-food production sector? This article analyzes a number of eco-certification schemes based on species choice, anticipated share of the global seafood market, size of eligible producers, and targeted environmental impacts.
It is time to recognize the crucial role of small-scale farmers in Asian aquaculture production and trade. The socially and economically important smallscale sector – the “mainstay” of Asian aquaculture – is innovative, but faced with constraints in modern markets. The sector needs investment from public and private sectors to compete and thrive. Another challenge is to develop certification programs in ways that promote responsible aquaculture expansion with due consideration to small-scale farming.
Fish—including finfish and shellfish—are an important item in the human food basket, contributing 17 percent of the global animal-based protein supply in 2010. They are an especially valuable food source in developing countries, where more than 75 percent of the world’s fish consumption occurs. In addition to protein, fish contain micronutrients and longchain omega-3 fatty acids that are essential for maternal and child health, but often deficient in the diets of the poor.
We use global value chain (GVC) theory to understand governance of Vietnam’s shrimp farming industry. We describe this GVC as buyer-driven with important food safety standards imposed by governments of importing countries and new certification systems promoted by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Governance relations are clear between governments in importing countries and Vietnam, and between importers and NGOs. Governance relations become more fragmented further down the chain where large numbers of small-scale producers and traders operate.
Significant changes in our understanding of the interrelationships between aquaculture and poverty have occurred in the last decade. In particular, there is a growing realization that the impacts of aquaculture need to be assessed from a value-chain perspective rather than through a narrow production focus. In recent years, understandings of poverty and the forms, outcomes and importance of aquaculture have also shifted. Terms in current use are first clarified, including those related to scale and location of aquaculture.
Since 1991, the certification, release and maintenance of new species for aquaculture have become part of the national policy in China. During the past 15 years, this policy has been conducted and improved and has begun to show its significant role in Chinese fisheries. This paper describes the updated system of certification, release and maintenance of new species for aquaculture in China.
With globalisation, importing countries often demand greater transparency together with the need for accredited certification of imported products. Although harmful algal blooms (HABs) do not pose a serious problem in Malaysia, except for Sabah, steps must be taken to develop effective monitoring programmes for harmful algae and HAB toxins. This paper describes the status of HABs in Malaysia and the monitoring programmes implemented to ensure seafood safety. Measures taken to upgrade and improve HAB management are also discussed.
Certification is an increasingly pervasive form of market governance through which retailers and NGOs are able to exert control over producers of primary products in order to secure their commercial and institutional interests. This paper assesses the likely outcomes of emerging certification standards intended to govern production of a new global commodity, Pangasius catfish. This evaluation focuses on Pangasius producers in Vietnam and Bangladesh, and one of the key areas which standards seek to regulate; the environment.