The potential impacts of climate change on fishing communities and fishing supplies are profound. To tackle this issue involves 1. Strengthening science to inform adaptation needs and mitigation options. 2. Putting knowledge into policy and practice. 3) Collaboration for climate change adaptation.
There is an increasing ‘fish gap’ in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), where fish supplies have failed to keep pace with the region’s growing demand. Despite the high dependence on fish for nutrition in much of the region, consumption is currently half the global average and declining. In SSA, as in many other regions globally, marine and inland capture fisheries resources are stagnating or decreasing, largely due to environmental or ecosystem changes and over-exploitation. Climate change is already altering the distribution of fish stocks and rainfall patterns upon which these fisheries depend.
Productivity enhancement has traditionally been the main focus of agricultural research to alleviate poverty and enhance food security of poor farmers in the developing world. Recently, the harmful impact of climate change, economic volatility, and other external shocks on poor farmers has led to concern that resilience should feature alongside productivity as a major objective of research.
This chapter examines the multiple dimensions of poverty and related 'state of being' such as vulnerability and social exclusion, with reference to several important aspects of vulnerability, including gender, climate change, HIV/AIDS and child labour.
International organizations are calling for fisheries to be included in a new global deal on climate change. A consortium of 16 organizations including the UN Environment Programme (UNEP), the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Bank and the WorldFish Center issued a policy brief to delegates meeting in Bonn from June 1-12 for the latest round of UN climate talks. Their key message was outlined in a Commentary by two of the authors of the brief published May 28 on Nature Reports Climate Change.
Lake Chilwa produces between zero and 24,000 metric tons of fish per year, making it one of the most productive but variable lakes in Africa. The size of the lake varies seasonally and among years, sometimes drying completely. Its surrounding wetland and floodplain provide habitat for a diversity of birds and economically valuable grasses and reeds. When the lake has water, there is considerable activity on its shores and temporary fishing villages spring up. People move in and out of the lake basin in concert with these seasonal and longer term changes.
Food security is expected to face increasing challenges from climatic risks that are more and more exacerbated by climate change, especially in the developing world. This document lists some of the main capabilities that have been recently developed, especially in the area of operational agroclimatology, for an efficient use of natural resources and a better management of climatic risks. It also lists some of the capabilities available to practitioners and decision-makers, starting with the dissemination of agroclimatic data analyses and advice.
The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices.
Climate change is leading to alterations in the basic biophysical processes that determine the ecological structure and function of the oceans. This will have an impact on the future of molluscan shellfish farming. The impacts may be positive or negative, depending upon location.
The El Nino phenomenon is an "anomalous climatic condition in the tropical Pacific region which occurs every two to seven years and affects the global climate". There is a greater increase in the water surface temperature of the eastern tropical and central tropical Pacific during an El Nino episode relative to that of the western tropical Pacific. The phenomenon causes fluctuations in rainfall, resulting in drought in some areas and heavy rainfall in others.