India is endowed with a continental shelf of 0.5 million km2 and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of about 2 million km2. Almost half (39%) of the Indian population utilizes the marine fisheries resources. India ranked sixth worldwide in total fish production (4.95 million t) and second in inland fish production (2.24 million t) during 1995 - 96. Fish production expanded from 0.75 million t in 1950 - 51 to 4.95 million t in 1995 - 96, giving a significant increase at a cumulative growth rate of 4.2% per annum.
Although fisheries production in the Indo-Pacific has markedly increased, employment opportunities have diminished, social inequalities have been exacerbated and peasant fishing households have been further impoverished. Thevarious reasons as to why this has occurred are considered. It is thought that an equitable system of coastal zone management should pay particular attention to the needs of traditional coastal communities, especially as such communities are often underdeveloped sectors of nations which are severely disadvantaged in international terms.
The Cogtong Bay experience represents a bold attempt to pursue a shared responsibility between the government and local residents for rehabilitating coastal resources. Some of the factors that provided the impetus to co-management arrangements were the recognition of resource management problems, dependence on coastal resources for livelihood and the desire for more sustainable resource use.
This document is a draft paper to be used for discussion purposes only
A discussion is presented on the topic of statistical data analysis in the field of ecology, emphasizing the importance of computer programmes being user friendly for the ecologist. Particular reference is given to TWINSPAN, CANOCO and PATN and the applications of these programmes to tropical fisheries and coastal zone management.
The involvement of communities with the assistance and support of government and non government organizations on the management of the coastal resources in Southern Thailand are discussed. The 3 most important resources, mangrove, seagrass and coral, create a complex coastal ecology. Several man-made activities causing the deterioration of this resources are also presented.
Isolated in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii was one of the last areas to be reached by "western" explorers; as a consequence, some ancient traditions were preserved in Hawaii well into the 19th and 20th centuries, providing an opportunity to learn from a surviving indigenous culture. An account is given of the division of the islands into various units and their exploitation. The smallest major divisions were the "ahupua'as," which spread out at the base along the shore and were self-sufficient units.
Traditional uses of marine resources and culture systems in Indonesia are largely confined to the shallow-water inshore zones of coastal waters. Cultural beliefs and the part they play in the small-scale fishing activities are discussed.