Marine fisheries production in India has increased from 0.5 million t in 1950 to 2.47 million t in 1997. The gross value of fisheries landings in India was US$2.37 billion in 1997. The contribution of fisheries to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has risen from 0.7% in 1980 - 81 to 1.2% in 1994 - 95. The contribution to agricultural GDP has risen from 1.9% to 4%. Fisheries production also plays a critical role in food security and livelihood in rural areas.
India is endowed with a continental shelf of 0.5 million km2 and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of about 2 million km2. Almost half (39%) of the Indian population utilizes the marine fisheries resources. India ranked sixth worldwide in total fish production (4.95 million t) and second in inland fish production (2.24 million t) during 1995 - 96. Fish production expanded from 0.75 million t in 1950 - 51 to 4.95 million t in 1995 - 96, giving a significant increase at a cumulative growth rate of 4.2% per annum.
Although fisheries production in the Indo-Pacific has markedly increased, employment opportunities have diminished, social inequalities have been exacerbated and peasant fishing households have been further impoverished. Thevarious reasons as to why this has occurred are considered. It is thought that an equitable system of coastal zone management should pay particular attention to the needs of traditional coastal communities, especially as such communities are often underdeveloped sectors of nations which are severely disadvantaged in international terms.
The paper describes a range of complex relationships among coastal ecosystems, demographic patterns and the effects of technology on coastal resource use.
Enhancements are interventions in the life cycle of common-pool aquatic resources. Enhancement technologies include culture-based fisheries, habitat modifications, fertilization, feeding and elimination of predators/competitors.Enhancements are estimated to yield about two million mt per year, mostly from culture-based fisheries in fresh waters where they account for some 20 percent of capture, or 10 percent of combined capture and culture production.
This essay is an attempt to define overfishing in terms less technical than those generally used by fishery biologists. It started from the classical definition, then quickly moved on to concepts that may be more relevant to coastal zone management.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which comprises Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand has a combined coastline of 85,504 km and a total sea area of approximately 8 multiplied by 1 million km super(2) (including EEZ). Recognizing the important contributions of the natural systems and the needs to maintain sustainable growth of the economy, ASEAN has over the past several years undertaken collective regional efforts to improve its capacity and capability in the management of the coastal and marine environments.
This study identifies the different types of locally based resource management systems in marine and coastal areas, such as co-management; community-based management; and integrated coastal zone management. A historical perspective is provided in identifying these, and case studies of community-based practices are also presented to further illustrate these elements.
This contribution is the first part of a four-part series documenting the development of B:RUN, a software program which reads data for common spreadsheets and presents them as low-resolution maps of slates and processes. The program emerged from a need which arose during a project in Brunei Darussalam for a 'low level' approach for researchers to communicate findings as efficiently and expeditiously as possible. Part I provides a overview of the concept and design elements of B:RUN.
Effects of fishing with explosives (blastfishing) and sodium cyanide and of anchor damage on live coral were investigated on a heavily exploited fringing reef in Boli-nao, Philippines from 1987 to 1990. A simple balance-sheet model indicated that approximately 1.4%/yr of the hermatypic coral cover may have been lost to blasting, 0.4%/yr to cyanide, and 0.03%/yr to coral-grabbing anchors, the potential coral recovery rate reduced by about one third from 3.8%/yr in the absence of disturbances to 2.4%/yr.