Marine fisheries production in India has increased from 0.5 million t in 1950 to 2.47 million t in 1997. The gross value of fisheries landings in India was US$2.37 billion in 1997. The contribution of fisheries to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has risen from 0.7% in 1980 - 81 to 1.2% in 1994 - 95. The contribution to agricultural GDP has risen from 1.9% to 4%. Fisheries production also plays a critical role in food security and livelihood in rural areas.
Although fisheries production in the Indo-Pacific has markedly increased, employment opportunities have diminished, social inequalities have been exacerbated and peasant fishing households have been further impoverished. Thevarious reasons as to why this has occurred are considered. It is thought that an equitable system of coastal zone management should pay particular attention to the needs of traditional coastal communities, especially as such communities are often underdeveloped sectors of nations which are severely disadvantaged in international terms.
Blessed with beautiful beaches, mangroves and coral reefs, fisheries in Costa Rica developed without a hasie resources management plan until the mid 1980s when protected areas were developed and integrated into the National System of Conservation Areas. With the boom in tourism as well as a decrease in fish landings due to overfishing, and an increase in pollution threatening the coastal areas, there is now a need for integrated management of marine resources. Costa Rica has made a deliberate choice for sustainable development.
The Cogtong Bay experience represents a bold attempt to pursue a shared responsibility between the government and local residents for rehabilitating coastal resources. Some of the factors that provided the impetus to co-management arrangements were the recognition of resource management problems, dependence on coastal resources for livelihood and the desire for more sustainable resource use.
This case study looks at changing livelihood strategies of the coastal population in Soc Trang Province in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, and their impacts on natural resources. It provides an opportunity not only to document the impact of shrimp farming on coastal livelihood but also to better understand the link between brackish water aquaculture development and natural resource use. The approach includes a socio-economic survey in six villages of the province focusing on risk strategies and livelihood diversification.
The Community-based Coastal Resource Management Project in Orion, Bataan, Philippines was started in 1991. The village level fishers organizations have formed a municipal-wide association called the Samahan at Ugnayan ng Pangisdaan sa Orion (SUGPO). It represents 70% of the small-scale fishers in Orion and has taken on the task of rehabilitating the degraded fishing grounds.
Isolated in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, Hawaii was one of the last areas to be reached by "western" explorers; as a consequence, some ancient traditions were preserved in Hawaii well into the 19th and 20th centuries, providing an opportunity to learn from a surviving indigenous culture. An account is given of the division of the islands into various units and their exploitation. The smallest major divisions were the "ahupua'as," which spread out at the base along the shore and were self-sufficient units.
Enhancements are interventions in the life cycle of common-pool aquatic resources. Enhancement technologies include culture-based fisheries, habitat modifications, fertilization, feeding and elimination of predators/competitors.Enhancements are estimated to yield about two million mt per year, mostly from culture-based fisheries in fresh waters where they account for some 20 percent of capture, or 10 percent of combined capture and culture production.
This essay is an attempt to define overfishing in terms less technical than those generally used by fishery biologists. It started from the classical definition, then quickly moved on to concepts that may be more relevant to coastal zone management.
The Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) which comprises Brunei Darussalam, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Singapore and Thailand has a combined coastline of 85,504 km and a total sea area of approximately 8 multiplied by 1 million km super(2) (including EEZ). Recognizing the important contributions of the natural systems and the needs to maintain sustainable growth of the economy, ASEAN has over the past several years undertaken collective regional efforts to improve its capacity and capability in the management of the coastal and marine environments.