India is endowed with a continental shelf of 0.5 million km2 and an exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of about 2 million km2. Almost half (39%) of the Indian population utilizes the marine fisheries resources. India ranked sixth worldwide in total fish production (4.95 million t) and second in inland fish production (2.24 million t) during 1995 - 96. Fish production expanded from 0.75 million t in 1950 - 51 to 4.95 million t in 1995 - 96, giving a significant increase at a cumulative growth rate of 4.2% per annum.
This book is a compendium of case studies illustrating how economic tools and techniques can be used to address a wide range of problems in the management and conservation of marine and coastal ecosystems in a developing country context.
Although fisheries production in the Indo-Pacific has markedly increased, employment opportunities have diminished, social inequalities have been exacerbated and peasant fishing households have been further impoverished. Thevarious reasons as to why this has occurred are considered. It is thought that an equitable system of coastal zone management should pay particular attention to the needs of traditional coastal communities, especially as such communities are often underdeveloped sectors of nations which are severely disadvantaged in international terms.
Coastal ecosystems in the Philippines are under stress from the combined effects of human overexploitation and habitat destruction. In recent years, the concept of an integrated approach to coastal resource management has been adopted to address this. This new paradigm, generally described as co-management, makes use of the participation of the different sectors (e.g. government, community) in the management process. CRMCs are multi-sectoral in nature with inter-LGU partnerships and different resource-sharing schemes.
In the aftermath of the tsunami in 2007, in an effort to assist communities in Western Province in Solomon Islands, the World Wide Fund for Nature, Solomon Islands (WWFSI) received funding from the David and Lucille Packard Foundation for a project on “Post-disaster fisheries and marine conservation recovery activities in the Western Province, Solomon Islands”.
The Cogtong Bay experience represents a bold attempt to pursue a shared responsibility between the government and local residents for rehabilitating coastal resources. Some of the factors that provided the impetus to co-management arrangements were the recognition of resource management problems, dependence on coastal resources for livelihood and the desire for more sustainable resource use.
Marine fisheries production in India has increased from 0.5 million t in 1950 to 2.47 million t in 1997. The gross value of fisheries landings in India was US$2.37 billion in 1997. The contribution of fisheries to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has risen from 0.7% in 1980 - 81 to 1.2% in 1994 - 95. The contribution to agricultural GDP has risen from 1.9% to 4%. Fisheries production also plays a critical role in food security and livelihood in rural areas.
This case study looks at changing livelihood strategies of the coastal population in Soc Trang Province in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, and their impacts on natural resources. It provides an opportunity not only to document the impact of shrimp farming on coastal livelihood but also to better understand the link between brackish water aquaculture development and natural resource use. The approach includes a socio-economic survey in six villages of the province focusing on risk strategies and livelihood diversification.
The Community-based Coastal Resource Management Project in Orion, Bataan, Philippines was started in 1991. The village level fishers organizations have formed a municipal-wide association called the Samahan at Ugnayan ng Pangisdaan sa Orion (SUGPO). It represents 70% of the small-scale fishers in Orion and has taken on the task of rehabilitating the degraded fishing grounds.
Traditional uses of marine resources and culture systems in Indonesia are largely confined to the shallow-water inshore zones of coastal waters. Cultural beliefs and the part they play in the small-scale fishing activities are discussed.