This article examines two strands of discourse on wild capture fisheries; one that focuses on resource sustainability and environmental impacts, another related to food and nutrition security and human well-being. Available data and research show that, for countries most dependent on fish to meet the nutritional requirements of their population, wild capture fisheries remain the dominant supplier.
The Asia-Pacific's Coral Triangle is defined by its extremely high marine biodiversity. Over one hundred million people living in its coastal zones use this biodiversity to support their livelihoods. Hundreds of millions more derive nutritious food directly from the region's marine resources and through local, regional and global trade. Biodiversity and its values to society are threatened by demographic and habitat change, rising demand, intensive harvesting and climate change.
There is a growing recognition that the fisheries policies of the past have been driven primarily by environmental and economic research agendas. This may have been due to the influence of the more powerful actors in the fisheries policy debate: foreign governments, conservation organizations, the scientific establishment, development bodies, and finance institutions. The actors without a voice at the table have been the millions of small-scale fishers, less educated, less organized, and with little economic or political weight.
The Mekong River is one of the great rivers of the world and is characterized by high fish biodiversity. A number of organizations are working at observing and protecting aquatic biodiversity in this hotspot of global importance. Among them are international organizations such as the WWF, Wetlands International, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the United Nation Environment Program (UNEP) but also regional institutions and national line agencies or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).
Africa harbours a rich biological diversity of native fish resources. Recognition of the potential to use these resources to make significant contributions towards improving African food security through aquaculture has existed for some time. A key challenge, however, is achieving compatibility between the two urgent, but sometimes conflicting, goals of reducing poverty and food insecurity in Africa through aquaculture development while paying due attention to the conservation of natural biodiversity and fish genetic resources (FiGR).
Evaluating the management effectiveness of marine protected areas (MPAs) has been a continuing challenge in marine conservation in the tropics. This paper describes the process involved, the chosen indicators and the selected results of the evaluation of management effectiveness of three MPAs in the Calamianes Islands, Palawan Province, Philippines. The evaluation was a participatory process that involved several institutions: academe, an externally-funded project, local governments, national government agencies and research organizations.
The main purpose of the study is to determine whether non-use values exist among residents of Quezon City, hundreds of kilometers away from Tubbataha Reefs. The dichotomous choice contingent valuation method (CVM) was employed across 800 randomly selected respondents, 400 of which were personally interviewed (PI) and 400 were asked to accomplish self-administered (SA) questionnaires, 198 of the latter were found useable for the study.
Bangladesh has had comprehensive experience of community based management for inland capture fisheries from several projects (revenue and externally funded) over the last 10 to 15 years. The lessons were extensively used for the elaboration of a strategy and a programme, which will seek to consolidate gains in and expansion of community based management linked to institutional and legal reform and a recognition and strengthening of the roles of civil society and the private sector. The Ministry of Fisheries and Livestock adopted the National Fisheries Strategy in January 2006.
The Directorate of Fisheries (DOF) of Bahrain has a novel scheme in which the DOF workers cooperate with local sports divers in the management and conservation of their marine resources. This cooperation is mutually beneficial for both the DOF and the divers who are interested in environmental conservation.
As in many tropical countries, subsistence fishers in Samoa live in discrete communities which have a high level of marine knowledge and some degree of control of adjacent waters. These factors provide an ideal basis for motivating communities to manage their marine resources. In Samoa, a community-based fisheries extension program encouraged each village community to define its key problems, discuss causes, propose solutions and take appropriate actions. Various village groups provided information which was recorded as problem/solution trees.