Activities undertaken in the field of reef conservation are discussed in detail. Harvesting reef resources, national parks and protected areas, research and monitoring, and general management of coastal waters are covered. International initiatives are also considered.
Coral reefs are recognized as globally important ecosystems, for their fisheries, tourism and biodiversity values in particular, with an estimated annual contribution of $30 billion to the global economy. The benefits that coral reef ecosystems provide through their provisioning, regulating, cultural and supporting services are critical for human wellbeing. The Coral Triangle region (which includes the waters of Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea (PNG), the Philippines, Solomon Islands and Timor Leste) supports the highest coral and reef fish species diversity in the world.
The Asia-Pacific's Coral Triangle is defined by its extremely high marine biodiversity. Over one hundred million people living in its coastal zones use this biodiversity to support their livelihoods. Hundreds of millions more derive nutritious food directly from the region's marine resources and through local, regional and global trade. Biodiversity and its values to society are threatened by demographic and habitat change, rising demand, intensive harvesting and climate change.
Periodically-harvested fisheries closures are emerging as a socially acceptable and locally implementable way to balance concerns about conserving ecosystem function and sustaining livelihoods. Across the Indo-Pacific periodically-harvested closures are commonly employed, yet their contribution towards more sustainable fisheries remains largely untested in the social and ecological context of tropical small-scale fisheries.
Details are given of a project undertaken in the central Philippines concerning various factors affecting coral reefsand the protective management of the coral reefs.
The potential productivity of coral reefs is discussed, considering problems involved in the different types of the reefsituations. The overall result is that coral reef fish on a world-wide basis are under-exploited.
A literature review indicated that artificial reefs seemed promising as refuges for fauna and to increase fish productivity. The author studied this alternative and after several months of preparatory arrangements a small reef was built between June and April 1984 at a depth of 10 m using approximately 400 scrap tires on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.
The specific aims of our study were: (1) to determine whether cultured juvenile H. scabra released near mangrove–seagrass and coral reef flat habitats suffered different levels of predation, and (2) to identify the predators of juvenile H. scabra and determine whether cages provided short-term protection for released individuals.
The degradation of coral reefs has become an issue of global concern. Assessment of the status of coral reefs worldwide requires more empirical information on the location and extent of these biologically and economically important resources. In this paper, the authors propose an international program to mobilize technological resources in support of a Global Inventory of Coral Reefs (GICOR).
Mangroves and seagrasses are of special interest to coastal fisheries worldwide because of the role they play in providing nursery areas for commonly harvested fish and invertebrates. Although the ecology of fish and invertebrates associated with mangroves and seagrasses in the tropical Pacific is not well understood compared with other parts of the world, the connectivity among mangroves, seagrasses, intertidal flats and coral reefs indicates that mangroves and seagrasses throughout the region provide a similar function to such habitats elsewhere.