The Java Sea is a major fishing ground in Indonesia contributing 31% of the national marine fisheries production. Demersal and small pelagic fishery resources account for most production in the area. During the 1960s and 1970s, strong demand for fish, which in Indonesia resulted from both increased human population and increased per capita fish consumption, stimulated the development of fishing in the Java Sea. This led to development of up-stream and down-stream industries, increases in employment opportunities, and increases in the number of fishers and fishing households.
Fisheries are an important source of protein and employment for Sri Lanka’s population. The declaration of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1976 gave the country a water area larger than its land area. The coastal fisheries resources consist of small and large pelagic fish, demersal and coral reef fish, invertebrates, shrimps and crabs. The small pelagic fish contribute 70% of the catch from coastal waters with an estimated annual production of 152 752 t in 1997.
The six Coral Triangle countries-Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste-each have evolving systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) at the national and local levels. More than 1,900 MPAs covering 200,881 km2 (1.6% of the exclusive economic zone for the region) have been established within these countries over the last 40 years under legal mandates that range from village level traditional law to national legal frameworks that mandate the protection of large areas as MPAs.
Mangroves and seagrasses are of special interest to coastal fisheries worldwide because of the role they play in providing nursery areas for commonly harvested fish and invertebrates. Although the ecology of fish and invertebrates associated with mangroves and seagrasses in the tropical Pacific is not well understood compared with other parts of the world, the connectivity among mangroves, seagrasses, intertidal flats and coral reefs indicates that mangroves and seagrasses throughout the region provide a similar function to such habitats elsewhere.
These publications, consisting of a Regional State of the Coral Triangle report with six corresponding country-level State of the Coral Triangle reports, identify key issues that decision makers must address if sustainable development of the Coral Triangle’s coastal and marine resources is to be achieved. The Regional State of the Coral Triangle report summarizes each country’s biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as their institutional framework for governing marine resource use.
The Coral Triangle is a global priority for conservation and since the creation of the Coral Triangle Initiative in 2007 it has been a major focus for a multi-lateral conservation partnership uniting the region's six governments. The Coral Triangle (CT) Atlas was developed to provide scientists and managers with the best available data on marine resources in the Coral Triangle.
The Solomon Islands National Plan of Action (SI-NPOA): Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF) provides visionary guidance for the management of coral reefs and related ecosystems in the Solomon Islands (Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology and Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, 2010). It is consistent with the CTI Regional Plan of Action (RPOA), but also incorporates local situations and circumstances.
This study was funded through the USAID-supported Coral Triangle Support Partnership (CTSP). As part of the US CTI Support Program, CTSP is part of the United States Government’s commitment to promote the sustainable management of the marine and coastal resources in the Coral Triangle. In cooperation with the Coral Triangle national governments and the international community, CTSP is a five-year program that provides technical assistance and helps build capacity to address critical issues including food security, climate change, and marine biological diversity.