Mangroves and seagrasses are of special interest to coastal fisheries worldwide because of the role they play in providing nursery areas for commonly harvested fish and invertebrates. Although the ecology of fish and invertebrates associated with mangroves and seagrasses in the tropical Pacific is not well understood compared with other parts of the world, the connectivity among mangroves, seagrasses, intertidal flats and coral reefs indicates that mangroves and seagrasses throughout the region provide a similar function to such habitats elsewhere.
Social networks play an important role in facilitating effective and sustained connections between people responsible for regional conservation plans and those responsible for local conservation actions. Yet, few studies have utilized social network analysis in systematic conservation planning initiatives; this, in spite of social network analysis being developed as a structural and relational approach to describe and analyze the characteristics of patterns of relationships that make collaborative efforts more or less effective at solving natural resource management problems.
After commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands, the chapter reviews the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic pressures, notably land use change, disruption to regional hydrological regimes as a result of abstraction and impoundment, pollution and excessive nutrient loading, the introduction of invasive species and overexploitation of biomass, plants and animals.
A mass-balance steady-state trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem off the West Coasts of Sabah and Sarawak, Malaysia (10 - 60 m depth) was constructed using the Ecopath software. The ecosystem models were partitioned into 29 ecological/trophic groups. The input values (e.g. biomasses) for selected groups were obtained from the research (trawl) surveys conducted in the area in 1972. The estimated mean trophic level of the fisheries catch for both models is about 3.3.
Increased production of mola and other small fish can be achieved through stock enhancement and sustainable management of natural wetlands. Enhanced fish production can increase consumption and provide nutritional benefits, especially for women and young children, as they suffer from high rates of malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies. Mola and other small fish, which are eaten whole, have high contents of vitamins and minerals. In recent years, there has been a reduction in fish production and biodiversity in wetland areas of Bangladesh.
The Barotse floodplain is an ecosystem characterized by a paradox of widespread poverty amidst high ecological and agricultural potential. The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) seeks to address this paradox on the assumption that the rural poor have the potential to transform their lives using the aquatic resources in their environment. Understanding the conditions for natural resources use and management is critical for a program that seeks to transform the livelihoods of households dependent on natural resources.
Cambodian inland fish resources are part of the Mekong system. With 781 known freshwater and brackish fish species, the Mekong Basin has the second highest fish biodiversity in the world after the Amazon Basin in South America. Cambodia itself features 461 freshwater species, plus 468 marine species and 26 species found in both environments. This makes 955 fish species in total.
The Mekong River is one of the great rivers of the world and is characterized by high fish biodiversity. A number of organizations are working at observing and protecting aquatic biodiversity in this hotspot of global importance. Among them are international organizations such as the WWF, Wetlands International, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the United Nation Environment Program (UNEP) but also regional institutions and national line agencies or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).
A mass-balance model of the trophic structure of San Pedro Bay, Leyte Province, Philippines was constructed using the Ecopath modeling software. The model is composed of 16 ecological groups (13 consumer, 2 producers, 1 detritus groups). The input parameters were obtained from the resource assessments studies conducted in 1994 - 95 and the biomass of Leiognathidae, an important group of small demersal fishes was estimated from trawl survey data using the swept- area method. The model indicated that the average trophic level of the fishery catches is 3.25.
This guide was developed to document the process and activities that WorldFish staff have used and adapted as facilitators working with communities interested in marine resource management in Solomon Islands. It draws on the experiences from work conducted with FSPI and MFMR through ACIAR funded projects, with communities that had a primary interest in the management of coral reef fisheries. Since 2011 the process has been trialed and adapted further with communities interested in mangrove ecosystem management (through the MESCAL project).