Wetlands

After commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands, the chapter reviews the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic pressures, notably land use change, disruption to regional hydrological regimes as a result of abstraction and impoundment, pollution and excessive nutrient loading, the introduction of invasive species and overexploitation of biomass, plants and animals.

Trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem of the west coast of peninsular Malaysia

A preliminary mass-balance trophic model was constructed for the coastal fisheries ecosystem of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia (0 - 120 m depth). The ecosystem was partitioned into 15 trophic groups, and biomasses for selected groups were obtained from research (trawl) surveys conducted in the area in 1987 and 1991. Trophic interactions of the groups are presented. The network analysis indicates that fishing fleets for demersal fishes and prawns have a major direct or indirect impact on most high-trophic level groups in the ecosystem.

Rethinking environmental leadership: The social construction of leaders and leadership in discourses of ecological crisis, development, and conservation

Leadership is heralded as being critical to addressing the “crisis of governance” facing the Earth's natural systems. While political, economic, and corporate discourses of leadership have been widely and critically interrogated, narratives of environmental leadership remain relatively neglected in the academic literature. The aims of this paper are twofold. First, to highlight the centrality and importance of environmental science's construction and mobilization of leadership discourse.

Navigating change: Second-generation challenges of small-scale fisheries co-management in the Philippines and Vietnam

Early efforts to apply the concept of fisheries co-management in Southeast Asia focused primarily on building the effectiveness of local management institutions and advocating the merits of the approach so that it would be applied in new sites, while gradually learning and adapting to a range of obstacles in practice. Today, with co-management widely embraced by the research community and adopted as policy by an increasing number of governments, a second-generation perspective has emerged.

Introduction to fish species diversity: Sunamganj haor region with CBRMP's working area

This book is a modest attempt at identifying Sunamganj haor fish species, especially in areas falling under the Sunamganj Community Based Resource Management Project (CBRMP). It contains a total of 126 fish species from 39 families found in the Sunamganj haor area. CBRMP has promoted community based fisheries management approaches that, along with their livelihoods focus, are helping to preserve and enhance natural fish stocks in the hoar basin. WorldFish support to LGED involves a number of areas including monitoring the impacts of CBRMP on fish catch, bio-diversity and livelihoods.

Increased production of small fish in wetlands combats micronutrient deficiencies in Bangladesh

Increased production of mola and other small fish can be achieved through stock enhancement and sustainable management of natural wetlands. Enhanced fish production can increase consumption and provide nutritional benefits, especially for women and young children, as they suffer from high rates of malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies. Mola and other small fish, which are eaten whole, have high contents of vitamins and minerals. In recent years, there has been a reduction in fish production and biodiversity in wetland areas of Bangladesh.

Fish biodiversity research in the Mekong Basin

The Mekong River is one of the great rivers of the world and is characterized by high fish biodiversity. A number of organizations are working at observing and protecting aquatic biodiversity in this hotspot of global importance. Among them are international organizations such as the WWF, Wetlands International, the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), and the United Nation Environment Program (UNEP) but also regional institutions and national line agencies or nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).

An ecosystem model of San Pedro Bay, Leyte, Philippines: initial parameter estimates

A mass-balance model of the trophic structure of San Pedro Bay, Leyte Province, Philippines was constructed using the Ecopath modeling software. The model is composed of 16 ecological groups (13 consumer, 2 producers, 1 detritus groups). The input parameters were obtained from the resource assessments studies conducted in 1994 - 95 and the biomass of Leiognathidae, an important group of small demersal fishes was estimated from trawl survey data using the swept- area method. The model indicated that the average trophic level of the fishery catches is 3.25.

Classifying degrees of species commonness: North Sea fish as a case study

Species commonness is often related to abundance and species conservation status. Intuitively, a "common species" is a species that is abundant in a certain area, widespread and at low risk of extinction. Analysing and classifying species commonness can help discovering indicators of ecosystem status and can prevent sudden changes in biodiversity. However, it is challenging to quantitatively define this concept. This paper presents a procedure to automatically characterize species commonness from biological surveys.

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