After commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands, the chapter reviews the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services. Wetlands are vulnerable to a range of anthropogenic pressures, notably land use change, disruption to regional hydrological regimes as a result of abstraction and impoundment, pollution and excessive nutrient loading, the introduction of invasive species and overexploitation of biomass, plants and animals.
This paper deals with a number of case studies that were undertaken during the last 8- 10 years in utilizing divergent ‘Tal’ wetland ecosystems (deep, semi-deep, temporary in a range of agro-ecological zones like NAZ, OAZ and Coastal Zone of the region) for the development of integrated management programmes using a range of approaches.
The Ecopath approach and software were used to construct a trophic model of the coastal fisheries ecosystem of the southwest (SW) coast of India. The model consisted of 11 ecological groups and used estimated landings from all areas along the southwest coast (based on the sample surveys conducted by Coastal Marine Fisheries Research Institute for the years 1994, 1995 and 1996). The trophic model suggests high catch levels, particularly for the large and medium predators, demersal feeders and detritivores.
Aquatic agricultural systems in developing countries face increasing competition from multiple stakeholders operating from local to national and regional scales over rights to access and use natural resources—land, water, wetlands, and fisheries—essential to rural livelihoods. A key implication is the need to strengthen governance to enable equitable decision-making amidst such competition, building capacities for resilience and transformations that reduce poverty.
The Java Sea is a major fishing ground in Indonesia contributing 31% of the national marine fisheries production. Demersal and small pelagic fishery resources account for most production in the area. During the 1960s and 1970s, strong demand for fish, which in Indonesia resulted from both increased human population and increased per capita fish consumption, stimulated the development of fishing in the Java Sea. This led to development of up-stream and down-stream industries, increases in employment opportunities, and increases in the number of fishers and fishing households.
The Solomon Islands National Plan of Action (SI-NPOA): Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF) provides visionary guidance for the management of coral reefs and related ecosystems in the Solomon Islands (Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology and Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, 2010). It is consistent with the CTI Regional Plan of Action (RPOA), but also incorporates local situations and circumstances.
Indonesia’s fisheries exports rose from 2 206 t in 1970 to 598 385 t in 1996 with a subsequent export value rise from US$0.69 billion to US$1.78 billion. The surplus in the balance of trade (BOT) was US$1.59 billion in 1996. The fisheries exports were predominantly shrimp, tuna, skipjack and demersal fishes. Large scale fisheries operations are prevalent in the Java Sea. The dominant fishing gear is hook-and-line (40%), gillnet (31%), traps (10%), seine net and lift-net (6%), purse seine (1%), shrimp net with BED (0.04%) and others (6%). The large scale fisheries e.g.
Sri Lanka is an island country with a land area of 65 610 km2. With the declaration of the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) in 1976, the country gained sovereign rights over an ocean area of 536 000 km2 and EEZ extending from 24 to 200 nm. The continental shelf is about 26 000 km2 with an average width of around 22 km, and the coastline is 1 100 km long. The total annual fish production of Sri Lanka was 25 000 t in 1952 and 269 850 t in 1998. Major fish species caught in Sri Lankan waters are skipjack, blood fish, yellow fin tuna, mullet, shark, trevally, Spanish mackerel, prawns, lobsters.
This study, supported by the Challenge Program Water and Food (CPWF-Project 35), demonstrates the case of multiple-use of water through seasonal aquaculture interventions for improved rice–fish production systems in the Bangladesh floodplains. The project focused on community-based fish culture initiatives, increasingly adopted in the agro-ecological zones of the major floodplains of the Padma, Testa, and Brahmaputra basin. The productivity of water and fish is used as an indicator to explain this case.