A trophic model of Lake George, Uganda, Central Africa was constructed using published quantitative and qualitative information on the various biotic components of the lake and the ECOPATH II approach and software. It is shown that the available production and biomass estimates for the various groups in the system are consistent with each other, and that it is possible to make a balanced model of the major trophic interactions in Lake George.
Thailand is currently one of the ten largest fishing nations in the world. In 1996, fish production reached 3.7 million t with 90% of the production coming from the marine fisheries sector and 10% from inland fisheries. Thai fishing operates in four fishing grounds namely, the Gulf of Thailand, the Andaman Sea, the South China Sea and the Bay of Bengal. However with the establishment of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) in 1977, Thailand lost over 300 000 km2 of traditional fishing grounds.
Indonesia’s fisheries exports rose from 2 206 t in 1970 to 598 385 t in 1996 with a subsequent export value rise from US$0.69 billion to US$1.78 billion. The surplus in the balance of trade (BOT) was US$1.59 billion in 1996. The fisheries exports were predominantly shrimp, tuna, skipjack and demersal fishes. Large scale fisheries operations are prevalent in the Java Sea. The dominant fishing gear is hook-and-line (40%), gillnet (31%), traps (10%), seine net and lift-net (6%), purse seine (1%), shrimp net with BED (0.04%) and others (6%). The large scale fisheries e.g.
Fish production in Vietnam increased rapidly from 420 000 t in 1981 to 1 130 680 t in 1998. Likewise, there was an expansion in the number of motorized fishing boats from 29 584 units with an average horsepower (HP) of 19.8 boat-1 in 1981 to 71 800 units with an average HP of 26.2 in 1998. In 1995, fish production was valued at VN$2 475 billion (US$0.02 billion at 1 US$ = 11 041 VN$; source: oanda. com).
The marine fisheries sector in Malaysia contributes significantly to the national economy in terms of income, foreign exchange and employment. In 1999, marine fisheries contributed 1.245 million t (90% of total fish production) valued at US$1.18 billion. The total value accounted for about 1.53% of national GDP and 11.31% of agricultural GDP. The export of fish and fishery products amounted to about US$210 million. The sector provided employment to about 80 000 fishers. Fisheries management is currently guided by the Third National Agricultural Policy (NAP3 1998 - 2010).
The worldwide depletion of major fish stocks through intensive industrial fishing is thought to have profoundly altered the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. Here we assess changes in the trophic structure of the English Channel marine ecosystem using a 90-year time-series (1920–2010) of commercial fishery landings. Our analysis was based on estimates of the mean trophic level (mTL) of annual landings and the Fishing-in-Balance index (FiB).
Marine fisheries production in India has increased from 0.5 million t in 1950 to 2.47 million t in 1997. The gross value of fisheries landings in India was US$2.37 billion in 1997. The contribution of fisheries to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) has risen from 0.7% in 1980 - 81 to 1.2% in 1994 - 95. The contribution to agricultural GDP has risen from 1.9% to 4%. Fisheries production also plays a critical role in food security and livelihood in rural areas.
Mangroves are an important resource for the rural coastal people of Solomon Islands. Mangrove forests are critical for food security and the livelihoods of coastal communities in Solomon Islands. In particular, mangroves are an important source of food (e.g. fish, mangrove fruit, shells and crabs) and timber (e.g. for firewood and building materials).
Fish—including finfish and shellfish—are an important item in the human food basket, contributing 17 percent of the global animal-based protein supply in 2010. They are an especially valuable food source in developing countries, where more than 75 percent of the world’s fish consumption occurs. In addition to protein, fish contain micronutrients and longchain omega-3 fatty acids that are essential for maternal and child health, but often deficient in the diets of the poor.
Freshwater allocation in an environment of increasing demand and declining quality and availability is a major societal challenge. While biodiversity and the needs of local communities are often in congruence, the over-riding necessity of meeting national demands for power, food and, increasingly, mitigation of the hydrological effects of climate change, often supersedes these.