Throughout the world, poor fisheries management contributes to resource degradation, poverty, and food insecurity. This European Union project on an Ecosystem Approach to Small-scale Tropical Marine Fisheries is led by WorldFish and implemented in collaboration with national partners in Indonesia, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands and Tanzania. The overall objective is to use an ecosystem approach to fisheries management (EAFM) to improve governance of small-scale fisheries (SSF).
WorldFish, with funding support from the European Commission (EC), is undertaking a project with sites in Indonesia, Philippines, Solomon Islands and Tanzania. Titled Implementing an Ecosystem Approach to Fisheries (EAF) in Small-scale Tropical Marine Fisheries, the project commenced in December 2011 and is set to finish by December 2014. The project has adopted an EAF framework with the aim of improving small-scale fisheries (SSF) management in the four countries – a significant step to help reduce poverty.
This paper reviews the coastal fishery resources of Bangladesh emphasizing the coastal environment, capture fisheries and management issues relative to the sector. Bangladesh’s Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) covers an area of about 166 000 km2. This area has abundant natural resources such as fish, shrimps, crabs and other marine products. Shrimp and fish trawling is the most important economic activity in this area. The fishery sector makes a significant contribution to the national economy in terms of foreign exchange, income generation and employment.
The growth in world aquaculture required to meet the demands of society will result in ever-increasing pressure upon aquatic and terrestrial resources. There are also potential consequences on the environment and on biodiversity, as well as inevitable societal impacts. There is growing adoption of aspects of the ecosystem approach to aquaculture (EAA), which takes a holistic view of the developments in the sector in an attempt to enable sustainable growth while avoiding negative effects.
Aquaculture is needed to meet future demand for fish and other seafood, but sustainable growth requires we better understand and manage risks. Risks are aplenty in aquaculture, some of which we are only now beginning to understand and address. The most important, from a development perspective, are those that make the lives of vulnerable smallholders worse rather than better.
Nations of the Greater Mekong Subregion need to ‘rethink’ their agricultural industries to meet future food needs, given the social shifts and climate changes that are forecast for the coming decades. With better farming practices, and by managing agriculture within the wider context of natural ecosystems, nations could boost production and increase the wealth and resilience of poor people in rural communities. Demand for food is forecast to double by 2050, as populations swell and people’s dietary choices change.
Climate change is accelerating and is already affecting the marine environment. Estimating the effects of climate change on the production of fish resources, and their dependent societies, is complex because of: difficulties of downscaling Global Climate Models (GCM) to scales of biological relevance; uncertainties over future net primary production and its transfer through the food chain; difficulties in separating the multiple stressors affecting fish production; and inadequate methodology to estimate human vulnerabilities to these changes.
This chapter discusses how small-scale fisheries dependent human communities are interactive with marine ecosystems. It has shown how changes in the marine ecosystems can impact human fishing communities, and also how the responses to these human communities can exacerbate or ameliorate ecosystem changes.
In October 2005, a consortium of partners led by the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) proposed a project aimed at integrating fish resources management in agricultural management in the Tonle Sap area. This 2-years project assistance was accepted for funding by the Challenge Program on Water and Food and started in January 2008. The overall goal of this project is to improve allocation and use of water in combined farming and fishing systems in order to enhance food security of rural communities and water productivity.
This paper deals with a number of case studies that were undertaken during the last 8- 10 years in utilizing divergent ‘Tal’ wetland ecosystems (deep, semi-deep, temporary in a range of agro-ecological zones like NAZ, OAZ and Coastal Zone of the region) for the development of integrated management programmes using a range of approaches.