Asia is the leading aquaculture region in the world, contributing to 85% of total world aquaculture production. Of the top 10 aquaculture producing countries 9 are Asian with China accounting for more than 65% of Asian production. Aquaculture in Asia contribute more than 80% of an estimated 17-20 million aquaculture farmers in Asia providing livelihoods, food security and export earning power but at the same time there are growing problems with environmental impact from large numbers of small-scale producers and the difficulties in planning and management of further development.
Aquaculture systems in developing countries are examined considering their environmental impact as well as benefits for producers. Extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems are examined. Destruction of the naturalenvironment and ecosystem, pollution effects and detrimental effects of introduced species are among some of thenegative aspects of aquaculture development that have to be considered when setting up development projects.
The catch-effort relationship of the River Nile is Complicated by such factors as changes in water level and hydrology as well as spawning movements of the fish, which result in uneven distribution of the fish and fishing. The effects ofdam construction on the ecology of the fish fauna are considered, with particular reference to the effects of the Faraskour dam on the river fishery.
Details are given of developments in the Philippines regarding the conversion of mangrove forests intobrackishwater fishponds, considering in particular environmental implications. Social and human costs and ecological costs are examined. The effects of increased stocking densities and of the use of chemicals and drugs on the pond ecosystems are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding measures to be taken for the conservation and management of the environment.
This review is prepared as part of the FAO Project “Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and monitoring in aquaculture”. The review provides a compilation, review and synthesis of existing EIA and environmental monitoring procedures and practices in aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region, the largest aquaculture-producing region in the world. This review, as in other regions, gives special consideration to four areas related to EIA and monitoring in aquaculture including: (1) the requirements (2) the practice (3) the effectiveness and (4) suggestions for improvements.
Twelve hydropower schemes have been proposed for the Lao, Lao-Thai and Cambodian reaches of the Mekong mainstream. Implementation of any or all of the proposed mainstream projects in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) could have profound and wide-ranging socio-economic and environmental impacts in all four riparian countries.
Introductions of exotic finfish between 1948 and 1953 are reported in this paper, with a brief reference to earlier and later introductions. Exotic fish were introduced principally to develop the potential for aquaculture in fresh and brackish waters in order to increase the availability of fish for rural communities through the biological control of aquatic vegetation. The algal feeding tilapia (Sarotherodon mossambicus) has created a new food industry in inland and brackishwaters.
Ways of evaluating the effects of environmental degradation from coral mining to reef fish communties in Maldives are presented.
This research note is provided as a supplement to the technical report, “Influence of Built Structures on Livelihoods: Case Studies of Road Development, Irrigation, and Fishing Lots," as part of the livelihoods component of the “Study of the Influence of Built Structures on the Fisheries of the Tonle Sap".
Blast fishing has been a widespread and accepted fishing technique in Indonesia for over 50 years. The largest coral reef fishery in Indonesia is around the Spermonde archipelago in southwest Sulawesi. With the expanding population and the increasing demand for fish for export, fishing has intensified and fish catches per unit effort are stable or declining. The use of bombs made with a mixture of kerosene and fertilizer is widely prevalent. In the market of the city of Ujung Pendang, an estimated 10-40% of the fish from capture fisheries are caught through blast fishing.