A description is given of the Japanese muro-ami fishing gear, which although is very effective in catching elusivereef fish, causes considerable reef damage during its operation.
Aquaculture systems in developing countries are examined considering their environmental impact as well as benefits for producers. Extensive, semi-intensive and intensive systems are examined. Destruction of the naturalenvironment and ecosystem, pollution effects and detrimental effects of introduced species are among some of thenegative aspects of aquaculture development that have to be considered when setting up development projects.
Asia is the leading aquaculture region in the world, contributing to 85% of total world aquaculture production. Of the top 10 aquaculture producing countries 9 are Asian with China accounting for more than 65% of Asian production. Aquaculture in Asia contribute more than 80% of an estimated 17-20 million aquaculture farmers in Asia providing livelihoods, food security and export earning power but at the same time there are growing problems with environmental impact from large numbers of small-scale producers and the difficulties in planning and management of further development.
Increases in fish demand in the coming decades are projected to be largely met by growth of aquaculture. However, increased aquaculture production is linked to higher demand for natural resources and energy as well as emissions to the environment. This paper explores the use of Life Cycle Assessment to improve knowledge of potential environmental impacts of future aquaculture growth. Different scenarios of future aquaculture development are taken into account in calculating the life cycle environmental impacts.
There are increasing requirements for impact assessment by development partners in order to increase the accountability and effectiveness of research and development projects. Impact assessment research has been dominated by conventional economic methods. This context challenges agricultural research organizations to develop and apply alternative impact assessment methods incorporating economic, social, and environmental impact components.
Details are given of developments in the Philippines regarding the conversion of mangrove forests intobrackishwater fishponds, considering in particular environmental implications. Social and human costs and ecological costs are examined. The effects of increased stocking densities and of the use of chemicals and drugs on the pond ecosystems are discussed. Recommendations are given regarding measures to be taken for the conservation and management of the environment.
This paper presents an evaluation of the 15-week course on Training in Fisheries Planning and Management being offered at the University of Namibia since 1991. This course includes instruction in fisheries technology, fisheries biology, fisheries law and law of the sea, fisheries economics, fisheries sociology, environment impact assessment, planning and management, the logical framework approach to planning and computer literacy. The participats in the course have rated the various elements in a range of 2.9 to 4.7 out of a maximum of 5 points.
Twelve hydropower schemes have been proposed for the Lao, Lao-Thai and Cambodian reaches of the Mekong mainstream. Implementation of any or all of the proposed mainstream projects in the Lower Mekong Basin (LMB) could have profound and wide-ranging socio-economic and environmental impacts in all four riparian countries.
Ways of evaluating the effects of environmental degradation from coral mining to reef fish communties in Maldives are presented.