Two means of reducing feed costs in semi-intensive aquaculture systems in the tropics are considered: economically optimal dietary protein levels and mixing feeding schedules.
Two sustainable, low-cost pond polyculture technologies have been developed to culture carps and mola in ponds, and culture carps and mola in ponds connected to rice fields. These technologies can increase total fish production from ponds. Farmers depend on carps as an income source, and mola is rich in micronutrients that can help to meet the nutritional requirements of the rural poor, particularly women and young children.
The effects of ditch size on growth and production of mono-sex tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus in rain fed concurrent rice–fish system were technically and economically evaluated for a period of 4 months. Three different ditch sizes were tried: 5%, 10% and 15% of the total cultivable rice field. It is concluded that rice–fish farming in a rain fed ecosystem of Bangladesh with medium ditch size and stocking density of 5000 ha-1 mono-sex tilapia can achieve better economic return.
People who are food and nutrition insecure largely reside in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa and for many, fish represents a rich source of protein, micronutrients and essential fatty acids. The contribution of fish to household food and nutrition security depends upon availability, access and cultural and personal preferences. Access is largely determined by location, seasonality and price but at the individual level it also depends upon a person's physiological and health status and how fish is prepared, cooked and shared among household members.
Fish farming has traditionally been combined with other agricultural production in West Java. Activities associated with fish culture include raising ducks, chickens, horses, water buffaloes, rice, aquatic plants, and even food processing, such as rice milling and the manufacture of soybean cake.
Increased production of mola and other small fish can be achieved through stock enhancement and sustainable management of natural wetlands. Enhanced fish production can increase consumption and provide nutritional benefits, especially for women and young children, as they suffer from high rates of malnutrition, including micronutrient deficiencies. Mola and other small fish, which are eaten whole, have high contents of vitamins and minerals. In recent years, there has been a reduction in fish production and biodiversity in wetland areas of Bangladesh.
This sheet provides basic information on how to construct and maintain ponds for fish farming in Solomon Islands. Fish that can be farmed in these ponds are tilapia and milkfish. Other information sheets provide details on milkfish farming, feeding and harvesting.
A brief account is given of a fish culture trial conducted in Malawi to determine the growth performance of Bathyclarias loweae and its potential for aquaculture.
Poster showing key steps in pond culture in Bangladesh
The findings are presented of a survey conducted in Malawi to determine the acceptability by fish farmers of raisingfish in excreta-fed ponds. The use of livestock excreta appeared to be acceptable to the majority of farmers, whereas the use of human excreta was not. Various recommendations are made regarding the promotion of the use of excreta in small-holder farms.