The freshwater fisheries in Myanmar are economically significant and important to livelihoods and food security. Yet significant threats to the resource base and public demand call for the development of management initiatives, legal adjustments and a people-centered approach. This brief identifies a series of options and priorities that could help improving freshwater fisheries management towards a more sustainable and equitable exploitation of inland fish resources.
Shellfish production in Thailand has ranged between 50,000 and 300,000 mt over the past twenty years, with recent production around 120,000 mt/yr. Major species are green (Perna viridis ) and horse mussels (Modiolus senhausenii ) making some 60% of total production. The other main types, in order, are short-necked clams (Paphia undulata ) ark shells (Andara granosa ) and oysters (Crassostrea sp.). Culture practices account for 80% of green mussel, cockle and oyster production. Culture began to boom in the mid-seventies following a decline in production of the fisheries.
A trophic model of the marine fisheries resources of the north coast of Central Java, Indonesia was constructed using the Ecopath with Ecosim software and data from a trawl survey conducted in the area in 1979. The model consists of 27 ecological groups with a mean trophic level of 3.04. The exploited fishery was then a moderately mature and relatively stable system. The impact of the fishery at the time was low to moderate in comparison with the fisheries in other systems and notably in later time periods.
We evaluate the current status of the global marine fisheries using the frameworks of conflict, food security and vulnerability. Existing trends suggest that there is likely to be greater food insecurity and fisheries conflicts due to issues such as: declining fishery resources; a North–South divide in investment; changing consumption patterns; increasing reliance on fishery resources for coastal communities; and inescapable poverty traps creating by low net resource productivity and few alternatives.
Throughout Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) there is broad recognition that fisheries and aquaculture make vital contributions to economic development, government revenue, food security and livelihoods.
Aquatic agricultural systems in developing countries face increasing competition from multiple stakeholders over rights to access and use natural resources, land, water, wetlands, and fisheries, essential to rural livelihoods. A key implication is the need to strengthen governance to enable equitable decision making amidst competition that spans sectors and scales, building capacities for resilience, and for transformations in institutions that perpetuate poverty.
It is widely recognized that women are significant actors in crop-livestock, pastoralist and fish systems. However, too little is known about agricultural development projects which deliberately work towards gender equity in livestock and fish value chains.
A review of case law and other documentation of human rights issues in fishing communities highlights forced evictions, detention without trial, child labour, forced labour and unsafe working conditions, and violence and personal security, including gender-based violence, as key areas of concern. We argue that human rights violations undermine current attempts to reform the fisheries sector in developing countries by increasing the vulnerability and marginalization of certain groups.
The present paper introduces a new method for data gathering using digital tablets in the field. The method is part of a fisheries study aimed at identifying migration patterns and breeding sites of key commercial fish species in Myanmar. The research is based on systematic and structured gathering of local knowledge along a 1,000 km long segment of the Ayeyarwady River, from the southern Delta to the northern Central Dry Zone. Digital tablets are used to convert local indigenous knowledge into data.
A brief description of the fisheries of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands is presented. This stretch of 585 islands, islets and rocks in the northeast Indian Ocean has sovereign rights to a sea area of nearly 600,000 sq/km.