Commencing with a summary of the current status, importance and productivity of natural wetlands the contribution of wetland ecological functions to sustaining vital ecosystem services is then reviewed. Provisioning services, notably fish and water for irrigation or domestic and industrial purposes constitute important benefits derived by humanity from wetlands, whilst recognition is growing that supporting, regulating and cultural services supported by wetlands are critical for sustaining social-economic systems and ensuring human well-being.
In this chapter, the authors assess the vulnerability of aquaculture in the tropical Pacific to climate change. It begins by summarising recent and potential aquaculture production to set the scene for the sector, and then use the framework outlined in Chapter 1, based on exposure, sensitivity, potential impact and adaptive capacity, to evaluate the vulnerability of the main commodities for food security and livelihoods.
Bangladesh is rich in aquatic resources with extensive seasonal and perennial water bodies throughout the country. In the past, the expansive floodplains, oxbow lakes, beels, and haors were home to a vast range of fish species. Of the 260 fishes found in the inland waters of Bangladesh, 150 grow to a small size (maximum length of about 25 cm), and these are found in the wetlands.
The Solomon Islands National Plan of Action (SI-NPOA): Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF) provides visionary guidance for the management of coral reefs and related ecosystems in the Solomon Islands (Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology and Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, 2010). It is consistent with the CTI Regional Plan of Action (RPOA), but also incorporates local situations and circumstances.
WorldFish is leading the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems together with two other CGIAR Centers; the International Water Management Institute (IWMI) and Bioversity. In 2012 and 2013 the AAS Program rolled out in Solomon Islands, Zambia, Bangladesh, Cambodia and the Philippines. Aquatic Agricultural Systems are places where farming and fishing in freshwater and/or coastal ecosystems contribute significantly to household income and food security. The program goal is to improve the well-being of AAS-dependent people.
The majority of rural farmers in Nepal are small holders and their livelihood is based on agriculture. Three projects on small- scale aquaculture, with focus on women’s involvement, were completed in Kathar and Kawasoti Village Development Committees (VDCs) of Chitwan and Nawalparasi districts, respectively during 2000-2007. Based on the experience from these projects, guidelines/ steps for the development of small-scale aquaculture in rural areas were drawn.
The Egyptian aquaculture industry provides more than 100,000 full-time or part-time jobs and produces the country’s least-expensive farmed animal protein. Thus, aquaculture plays an important role in both sustaining livelihoods and improving the diet quality and nutritional health of Egyptians, including a significant proportion of the 25.5% who are resource-poor. Recognizing this dual role, WorldFish has promoted sustainable growth in Egyptian aquaculture for more than 20 years.
Asia is the leading aquaculture region in the world, contributing to 85% of total world aquaculture production. Of the top 10 aquaculture producing countries 9 are Asian with China accounting for more than 65% of Asian production. Aquaculture in Asia contribute more than 80% of an estimated 17-20 million aquaculture farmers in Asia providing livelihoods, food security and export earning power but at the same time there are growing problems with environmental impact from large numbers of small-scale producers and the difficulties in planning and management of further development.
Aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) are diverse production and livelihood systems where families cultivate a range of crops, raise livestock, farm or catch fish, gather fruits and other tree crops, and harness natural resources such as timber, reeds, and wildlife. Aquatic agricultural systems occur along freshwater floodplains, coastal deltas, and inshore marine waters, and are characterized by dependence on seasonal changes in productivity, driven by seasonal variation in rainfall, river flow, and/or coastal and marine processes.
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) is pursuing a Research in Development approach that emphasizes the importance of embedding research in the development context. Reflecting this emphasis the six elements of this approach are a commitment to people and place, participatory action research, gender transformative research, learning and networking, partnerships, and capacity building. It is through the careful pursuit of these six elements that we believe that the program will achieve the development outcomes we aspire to, and do so at scale.