Egypt’s aquaculture production (705,490 tonnes in 2009) is by far the largest of any African country and places it 11th in terms of global production. The aquaculture sector makes a significant contribution to income, employment creation and food security in the country, all of which are national priority areas given low per capita income levels, rising population, worsening food security indicators, and official unemployment levels which have remained at around 10% for the last ten years.
Bangladesh is rich in aquatic resources with extensive seasonal and perennial water bodies throughout the country. In the past, the expansive floodplains, oxbow lakes, beels, and haors were home to a vast range of fish species. Of the 260 fishes found in the inland waters of Bangladesh, 150 grow to a small size (maximum length of about 25 cm), and these are found in the wetlands.
Aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) are places where farming and fishing in freshwater and/or coastal ecosystems contribute significantly to household income and food security. Globally, the livelihoods of many poor and vulnerable people are dependent on these systems. In recognition of the importance of AAS, the CGIAR Research Program (CRP) is undertaking a new generation of global agricultural research programs on key issues affecting global food security and rural development.
The potential of small-scale aquaculture (SSA) to contribute to development goals including poverty reduction and improved food security has been widely discussed. These accounts emphasize the following characteristics of SSA: the relative poverty of practising households; the subsistence or semi-subsistence nature of the activity; its role as a means of agricultural diversification; its contribution to food security; family ownership and operation of production or reliance on predominantly family labour; and utilization of small areas of land and/or water.
In this chapter, the authors assess the vulnerability of aquaculture in the tropical Pacific to climate change. It begins by summarising recent and potential aquaculture production to set the scene for the sector, and then use the framework outlined in Chapter 1, based on exposure, sensitivity, potential impact and adaptive capacity, to evaluate the vulnerability of the main commodities for food security and livelihoods.
The CGIAR Strategy and Results Framework sets out four system level outcomes (SLOs), namely: reducing rural poverty, improving food security, improving nutrition and health and sustainable management of natural resources. In pursuit of these objectives the CGIAR has developed a set of sixteen CGIAR Research Programs (CRPs), each of which is expected to make specific contributions to a range of intermediate development outcomes (IDOs) linked to the SLOs.
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) is committed to improving the food security and wellbeing of poor people who depend on freshwater and coastal ecosystems for their livelihoods. AAS is particularly concerned with enhancing the equity of the social, economic and political structures that influence the livelihoods of poor households dependent on aquatic agricultural systems.
Small freshwater pelagic fisheries in closed lakes are very important to millions of people in sub-Saharan Africa providing livelihoods and nutritional security. However, returns from these fisheries have been shown to uctuate in response to climatic variability. In order to understand the impact of these fluctuations on the livelihoods of people dependant on these fisheries, there is a need for information on how the fish value chain is organized and how it functions in response to variation in supplies.
These publications, consisting of a Regional State of the Coral Triangle report with six corresponding country-level State of the Coral Triangle reports, identify key issues that decision makers must address if sustainable development of the Coral Triangle’s coastal and marine resources is to be achieved. The Regional State of the Coral Triangle report summarizes each country’s biophysical and socioeconomic characteristics, as well as their institutional framework for governing marine resource use.
The Solomon Islands National Plan of Action (SI-NPOA): Coral Triangle Initiative on Coral Reefs, Fisheries, and Food Security (CTI-CFF) provides visionary guidance for the management of coral reefs and related ecosystems in the Solomon Islands (Ministry of Environment, Climate Change, Disaster Management and Meteorology and Ministry of Fisheries and Marine Resources, 2010). It is consistent with the CTI Regional Plan of Action (RPOA), but also incorporates local situations and circumstances.