Most small waterbodies were built for irrigation and/or drinking water storage for humans and livestock, but have also been shown to play an important role in watershed management. Apart from natural lakes, small waterbodies are generally of two types: 1) reservoirs created by damming a river and, 2) ponds built on watersheds to collect and store surface runoff. There are millions of small waterbodies scattered throughout the world, most of which are poorly or not at all managed for fish production.
Small-scale fisheries (SSF) make important but undervalued contributions to the economies of some of the world’s poorest countries. They also provide much of the animal protein needed by societies in which food security remains a pressing issue. Assessment and management of these fisheries is usually inadequate or absent and they continue to fall short of their potential as engines for development and social change. In this study, we bring together existing theory and methods to suggest a general scheme for diagnosing and managing SSF.
The livelihoods and food security of many Cambodians depend heavily on inland capture fisheries, so the sustainable management of these fisheries is very important. Notwithstanding, the sustainability of Mekong fisheries is threatened by increasing fishing pressure and habitat modifications. Current management is considered insufficiently capable of controlling levels of exploitation and achieving equitable distribution of the resource, and the Cambodian government is promoting co-management initiatives as a way of addressing these issues.
Rice is presently grown in 113 countries. Rice farming also offers a suitable environment for the culture of fish and other aquatic organism. This publication synthesizes the available information on the role that aquaculture can play in rice-based farming systems towards food security and poverty alleviation.
In Asia, the fisheries sector is important in terms of food security, livelihoods and foreign exchange earnings. However, as in many parts of the world, there are signs that capture fisheries are fully exploited or overfished. Management of fisheries in the region is often hampered by lack of information on the status of fisheries in terms of biological, social, economic, policy and governance aspects. This regional project documents an alarming decline on coastal fishery resources, based on historic research surveys in South and Southeast Asia.
Fish has become a political commodity, thanks to its increasing scarcity and its high value. Aquaculture offers opportunities as the last frontier for sustaining the contribution of fish to food security. Asia is at the forefront of world aquaculture development and has many lessons to share, even within the region. Though aquaculture has made remarkable contributions to availability of food, it promises far more than has already been achieved. Aquaculture can produce more affordable fish, income-generat-ing activities and rural development.
China is a large and rapidly developing country. Fisheries and aquaculture have been prominent sectors in the contribution to GDP and the provision of food security, export revenue, and livelihoods for the poor. The rapid development has come at some cost to the environment and the sustainability of natural resources. Levels of marine fisheries catches are stagnant. Some of the rivers and major lakes are polluted and the restoration of the productivity of these lakes is of key concern.
More than half of the 4 million hectares of the Mekong Delta are covered by acid sulfate soils (ASS). Most ASS areas have been reclaimed for agricultural production during recent decades by means of new canals, new settlements, floodplain drainage, and new rice varieties and cropping systems. In 1996, agriculture occupied 83% of the total area of the Delta. Urban areas account for 10% of the total area. This leaves only 7% for natural or semi-natural wetlands. Rice is the dominant agricultural product and greatly contributes to the food security of the country.
Fish play an increasingly important role in national and local economies of many developing countries. Africa’s rivers, wetlands and lakes are especially important for poor rural households for whom they provide employment and income opportunities in areas where other economic alternatives are scarce or inexistent. They also provide nutritional safetynets in these regions with limited roads and access to market. However, policy makers and regional decision makers tend to underrate fisheries, in particular inland small-scale fisheries.
This rolling Medium Term Plan (MTP) for 2003-2005 presents WorldFish Center’s (WorldFish) programs and partnerships and describes how they are designed to provide the scientific basis for the multiple positive contributions of sustainable aquatic resources management to poverty eradication, food security and environmental rehabilitation.