Coastal fisheries are central to the lives of rural Solomon Island villages, supplying daily food and serving as one of the few sources of income. Yet, it is predicted that coastal fisheries in Solomon Islands, like many countries in the Pacific region, will not be able to provide enough fish to meet peoples’ needs by 2030. Proposed strategies to prevent this scenario include improving the management of coastal fisheries and diversifying sources of fish by enhancing access to other fishes, either through aquaculture or the use of fish aggregating devices (FAD).
This short note has outlined the critical role of natural resource governance to Cambodia’s prospects for sustained economic growth, poverty reduction, and food security. It has also introduced a range of challenges to improving natural resource governance, at the level of strategic goals as well as institutional capacities and processes. It is intended as a launchpad for discussion, not to provide specific answers but to focus attention on key questions that can form the basis of a collaborative agenda for policy dialogue and research.
Hunger and malnutrition are the world’s most devastating problems and are inextricably linked to poverty. A total of 842 million people in 2011-13, or around one in eight people in the world, were estimated to be suffering from chronic hunger, regularly not getting enough food to conduct an active life (FAO, IFAD and WFP 2013).
The six Coral Triangle countries-Indonesia, Malaysia, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Solomon Islands, and Timor-Leste-each have evolving systems of marine protected areas (MPAs) at the national and local levels. More than 1,900 MPAs covering 200,881 km2 (1.6% of the exclusive economic zone for the region) have been established within these countries over the last 40 years under legal mandates that range from village level traditional law to national legal frameworks that mandate the protection of large areas as MPAs.
Increasing water productivity is an important element in improved water management for sustainable agriculture, food security and healthy ecosystem functioning. Water productivity is defined as the amount of agricultural output per unit of water depleted, and can be assessed for crops, trees, livestock and fish. This chapter reviews challenges in and opportunities for improving water productivity in socially equitable and sustainable ways by thinking beyond technologies, and fostering enabling institutions and policies.
Fish—including finfish and shellfish—are an important item in the human food basket, contributing 17 percent of the global animal-based protein supply in 2010. They are an especially valuable food source in developing countries, where more than 75 percent of the world’s fish consumption occurs. In addition to protein, fish contain micronutrients and longchain omega-3 fatty acids that are essential for maternal and child health, but often deficient in the diets of the poor.
The Mekong is an exceptional river in many ways. In terms of fish biodiversity, it is the world’s second richest river after the Amazon (www.fishbase. org). With 6 to 18% of the global freshwater fish catch, it is also home to the largest freshwater fisheries in the world. The productive Mekong fisheries are essential to the food security of the 60 million people of the Lower Mekong Basin. Fish contributes 81% of the population’s protein intake in Cambodia and 48% in Laos. Mekong inland fisheries also provide employment to 1.6 of the 14 million Cambodians.
The document attempts to distil what is currently known about the likely impacts of climate change on the commodities and natural resources that comprise the mandate of CGIAR and its 15 Centres. It was designed as one background document for a review carried out by the High Level Panel of Experts on Food Security and Nutrition (HLPE) at the behest of the UN Committee on World Food Security (CFS) on what is known about the likely effects of climate change on food security and nutrition, with a focus on the most affected and vulnerable regions and populations.
In July 2011, the CGIAR approved the CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) in recognition of the importance of these systems and the potential they provide for reducing poverty. Our goal is to reduce poverty and improve food security for people whose livelihoods depend on aquatic agricultural systems.
Measuring the vulnerability of human populations to environmental change is increasingly being used to develop appropriate adaptation policies and management plans for different economic sectors. We developed a national-level vulnerability index that is specific to food security policies by measuring nations’ relative vulnerabilities to a decline in their coral reef fisheries. Coral reef fisheries are expected to decline with climate and anthropogenic disturbances, which may have significant consequences for food security.