A review of case law and other documentation of human rights issues in fishing communities highlights forced evictions, detention without trial, child labour, forced labour and unsafe working conditions, and violence and personal security, including gender-based violence, as key areas of concern. We argue that human rights violations undermine current attempts to reform the fisheries sector in developing countries by increasing the vulnerability and marginalization of certain groups.
Analysis from research and practice in Africa shows that fishing communities are hardly reached by HIV-related services, education, and business services, partly because of the efforts and costs involved and a lack of good practice in reaching out to these often remote areas. At the same time, fish traders, especially women, travel regularly to remote fishing camps to purchase fish. Although female fish traders may be exposed to HIV, violence and abuse in their interactions and relationships with fishermen, economic necessity keeps them in this trade.
Gender inequality constrains the real and potential capacity of women farmers to successfully adapt their farming practices in the face of climate risks or to develop stronger, more diversified livelihood portfolios that would enhance their and their families’ future resilience to social or environmental shocks.
During the rollout of CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) in Tonle Sap in 2013, water management was highlighted as one of the key development challenges. With limited capacity to regulate water, the situation oscillates between too much water in the wet season and too little water in the dry season.
In light of recent calls to integrate gender equality and social equity (GESE) strategies into development projects, researchers have begun to explore the gender-related inequalities in aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) and agriculture. This literature review addresses a gap in existing research by identifying the role of GESE-related communication components in AAS and agricultural interventions.
There is compelling evidence that increased gender equity can make a significant contribution towards alleviating poverty and increasing food security. But past efforts to integrate gender into agricultural research and development practice have failed to address the inequalities that limit women’s access to agricultural inputs, markets, resources and advice. A Gender Transformative Approach (GTA) goes beyond just considering the symptoms of gender inequality, and addresses the social norms, attitudes, behaviors and social systems that underlie them.
The European Union-supported Agriculture and Nutrition Extension Project (ANEP) began in Bangladesh and Nepal in December 2011 and ended in November 2014. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve the food security and nutrition of smallholders by facilitating the adoption of productive and environmentally sustainable agricultural technologies that improve beneficiaries’ livelihoods; and (2) create and develop market links to improve food and nutritional security of both rural producers and urban consumers in Bangladesh and Nepal.
Farming-based rural livelihoods are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of global climate change and sudden and profound changes in social and economic systems. Diversification of livelihood options is believed to be vital to maintaining ecosystem resilience and building social systems resilience. Integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems, considered among the promising options for small-scale farming households in China and Vietnam, are likely be relevant in the context of mixed crop- livestock farming systems elsewhere as well.
Improving the productivity of fisheries and aquaculture is vital to reducing hunger and poverty for millions of people in the developing world. Today, fish provides more than one billion poor people with most of their daily animal-source protein and, globally, more than 250 million people depend directly on fisheries and aquaculture for their livelihoods; millions more are employed in fisheries and aquaculture value chains.
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) takes an innovative approach to improving the lives of poor and vulnerable rural households. It aims to directly benefit some 6 million people (in Asia’s mega deltas, the island systems of the Pacific and Southeast Asia, and Africa’s inland waters), and through scaling with partners to reach 15 million more. By sharing its learning, the program aims to extend the benefits of its approaches to many more people living in other complex systems.