The European Union-supported Agriculture and Nutrition Extension Project (ANEP) began in Bangladesh and Nepal in December 2011 and ended in November 2014. The objectives of the project were to: (1) improve the food security and nutrition of smallholders by facilitating the adoption of productive and environmentally sustainable agricultural technologies that improve beneficiaries’ livelihoods; and (2) create and develop market links to improve food and nutritional security of both rural producers and urban consumers in Bangladesh and Nepal.
Farming-based rural livelihoods are becoming increasingly vulnerable to the effects of global climate change and sudden and profound changes in social and economic systems. Diversification of livelihood options is believed to be vital to maintaining ecosystem resilience and building social systems resilience. Integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) farming systems, considered among the promising options for small-scale farming households in China and Vietnam, are likely be relevant in the context of mixed crop- livestock farming systems elsewhere as well.
This Annual Report provides just a few examples of the pathways through which WorldFish's work delivers benefits to poor people who rely on fish for food. You will find stories about: 1) Egyptian farmers who are now benefiting from faster growing fish strains; 2) Women in Bangladesh whose incomes have grown because of the increases in production that pond management training has provided; and 3) Improvements in access to fishing grounds and local employment that investment in strengthening aquatic resource governance in Zambia have delivered.
The CGIAR Research Program on Aquatic Agricultural Systems (AAS) takes an innovative approach to improving the lives of poor and vulnerable rural households. It aims to directly benefit some 6 million people (in Asia’s mega deltas, the island systems of the Pacific and Southeast Asia, and Africa’s inland waters), and through scaling with partners to reach 15 million more. By sharing its learning, the program aims to extend the benefits of its approaches to many more people living in other complex systems.
To inform the development of alternative livelihoods, the women's traditional alok fishery in the Campo-Ma'an National Park and buffer zone of southern Cameroon were studied over 15 months. Participatory rural appraisal was used to characterise livelihood strategies among 45 households. Thirty-three cultured crops, nine farmed animal species and 65 non-timber forest products, including 31 bushmeat species are cultivated in, or harvested from, the forest. Transport is a major impediment to commercial trade of all local products.
Malnutrition levels in Bangladesh are amongst the highest in the world. Approximately half of Bangladesh’s population lives below the food poverty line and the dietary intake of both adults and children are severely deficient in key vitamins and minerals. It is now understood that women and children are the more food-insecure and micronutrient-deficient in the population.
Women in India are involved in various facets of shrimp (Penaeus monodon; Penaeus indicus) farming, including pond construction, seed collection, collection of feed materials and preparation of feeds, pond maintenance and post-harvest handling. This study indicates that 40% of laborers involved in shrimp farm construction are women. The various roles of women in shrimp farming are also described.
In Bangladesh, only 6% of the daily food intake is animal food of which fish accounts for 50%. Rice is the mainstay, making up 60% of the daily food intake. However, many nutrients such as vitamins A and C, iron, calcium, zinc and iodine are not found in rice and have to be obtained from other sources. Small indigenous fish are a vital contribution to the diet of the rural poor in Bangladesh, where more than 30,000 children go blind every year from vitamin A deficiency and 70% of women and children are iron-deficient.
Most research on gender difference or inequities in capture fisheries and aquaculture in Africa and the Asia-Pacific focuses on the gender division of labour. Emerging research on globalization, market changes, poverty and trends in gendered employment within this sector reveals the need to move beyond this narrow perspective. If gleaning and post-harvesting activities were enumerated, the fisheries and aquaculture sector might well turn out to be female sphere.
Women’s involvement in fisheries is more significant than often assumed. According to current estimates from nine major fish producing countries, they comprise 46% of the labor force in smallscale capture fisheries-related activities, including pre- and post-harvesting work. Their current engagement is shaped by rapidly dwindling fisheries stocks on one hand, and the increased global demand for fish on the other. At the WorldFish Center, research on gender and fisheries currently focuses on: 1. Markets, trade and migration 2. Capabilities and well-being 3. Identities and networks 4.