Genomics in marine monitoring: New opportunities for assessing marine health status

This viewpoint paper explores the potential of genomics technology to provide accurate, rapid, and cost efficient observations of the marine environment. The use of such approaches in next generation marine monitoring programs will help achieve the goals of marine legislation implemented world-wide. Genomic methods can yield faster results from monitoring, easier and more reliable taxonomic identification, as well as quicker and better assessment of the environmental status of marine waters.

Genetic improvement of Israeli blue (Jordan) tilapia, Oreochromis aureus (Steindachner), through selective breeding for harvest weight

Genetic parameters and selection responses were obtained for harvest body weight of blue tilapia (Oreochromis aureus) from data collected over three generations in a selected population. A total of 18 194 records representing 186 sires and 201 dams were used in the analysis. Within generation heritability estimates for harvest body weight ranged from 0.18 to 0.58. When data from more than one generation were included in the analysis, heritability estimates became more stable (0.33–0.40) and it was 0.33 when all data were included in the analysis.

Genetic improvement of farmed tilapias: Genetic parameters for body weight at harvest in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) during five generations of testing in multiple environments

The main objective of this paper was to report more reliable estimates of the genetic variation and the genotype by test environment interaction for harvest body weight in the GIFT population in the Philippines than could be obtained from the base population by using the data from the five generations following the base population and that covers a wider span of test environments than the later experiments referred to above. Included are also estimates of the genotype by sex interactions for body weight.

Flesh characteristics: estimation of genetic parameters and correlated responses to selection for growth rate in the GIFT strain

Genetically improved farmed tilapia (GIFT) has undergone ten generations of selection for harvest body weight in Malaysia, but there have been no reports on genetic parameters for flesh characteristics for this strain. In this study the effects of selection for increased harvest body weight on flesh chemical composition (protein%, fat%, moisture% and pH) as well as in colour, were investigated in fillets from fish of the GIFT strain.

Donor-oyster derived heritability estimates and the effect of genotype X environment interaction on the production of pearl quality traits in the silver-lip pearl oyster, Pinctada maxima

The aim of this study was to estimate donor-oyster derived heritability and genetic correlations for pearl quality traits in the silver-lipped pearl oyster, P. maxima; namely pearl size, colour, lustre, shape and complexion. As future breeding programs for pearls are likely to involve oysters that will be reared in geographically disparate locations we also evaluated the potential impact environment G × E interactions may have on the realization of genetic gains for pearl quality traits.

Differences in sexual size dimorphism among farmed tilapia species and strains undergoing genetic improvement for body weight

Many tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) farmers produce all-male populations because of the superior growth rate of males compared to females. To investigate differences in body weight at harvest of males and females among different tilapia strains, we analyzed data from 62,787 individuals collected from pedigreed breeding programs of O. niloticus (GIFT from Malaysia, the Abbassa line from Egypt, and the Akosombo line from Ghana), O. shiranus (the Bunda College-Domasi selection line), O.

Considerations about effective dissemination of improved fish strains

Aquaculture production systems in developing countries are largely based on the use of unimproved species and strains. As knowledge and experience are accumulated in relation to the management, feeding and animal health issues of such production systems, the availability of genetically more productive stock becomes imperative in order to more effectively use resources. For instance, there is little point in providing ideal water conditions and optimum feed quality to fish that do not have the potential to grow faster and to be harvested on time, providing a product of the desired quality.

A comparison of communal and separate rearing of families in selective breeding of common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Responses to selection

The genetic response in growth traits in a selection program for increased harvest weight in a common carp population in Vietnam is reported. A base population (G0) was established from six carp stocks using single pair mating. Selection was based on high breeding values for body weight at harvest, with a corresponding control group selected on average breeding values of the population.

Transgene expressions in seabass (Lates calcarifer) following muscular injection of plasmid DNA: a strategy for vaccine development?

Muscular injection has become one of the direct methods for transferring foreign DNA into organisms. The technique has been recently introduced in the development of vaccines and gene therapy. Vaccine development, in particular, would be desirable in managing viral diseases in farmed fish. In this study, the technique was performed on seabass (Lates calcarifer) and was found that the foreign gene could be transferred successfully through injection into the muscles.

A Systematic approach to advance and refine genetic improvement programs in aquatic species

Aquaculture is predicted to continue playing a major and ever increasing role in meeting human's needs for protein. Production systems in developing countries are largely based on the use of unimproved species and strains. As knowledge and experience are accumulated in the management, feeding and animal health issues of such production systems, the availability of genetically more productive stock becomes imperative in order to more effectively use the resources.

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