Exploitation and conservation of fish genetic resources in Africa: issues and priorities for aquaculture development and research

Africa harbours a rich biological diversity of native fish resources. Recognition of the potential to use these resources to make significant contributions towards improving African food security through aquaculture has existed for some time. A key challenge, however, is achieving compatibility between the two urgent, but sometimes conflicting, goals of reducing poverty and food insecurity in Africa through aquaculture development while paying due attention to the conservation of natural biodiversity and fish genetic resources (FiGR).

Considerations about effective dissemination of improved fish strains

Aquaculture production systems in developing countries are largely based on the use of unimproved species and strains. As knowledge and experience are accumulated in relation to the management, feeding and animal health issues of such production systems, the availability of genetically more productive stock becomes imperative in order to more effectively use resources. For instance, there is little point in providing ideal water conditions and optimum feed quality to fish that do not have the potential to grow faster and to be harvested on time, providing a product of the desired quality.

A comparison of communal and separate rearing of families in selective breeding of common carp (Cyprinus carpio): Responses to selection

The genetic response in growth traits in a selection program for increased harvest weight in a common carp population in Vietnam is reported. A base population (G0) was established from six carp stocks using single pair mating. Selection was based on high breeding values for body weight at harvest, with a corresponding control group selected on average breeding values of the population.

Use and exchange of aquatic genetic resources for food and aquaculture: clarias catfish

There are 58 species of Clarias recognized in FishBase (as of January 2009), 33 in Africa and 25 in Asia. Aquaculture of clariids is important with 30 countries reporting a total production of over 300 000 t worth nearly US$400 million in 2006. Most production involves the African Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) and three Asian species, Clarias batrachus (Linnaeus, 1758), Clarias macrocephalus (Günther, 1864) and Clarias fuscus (Lacep'de, 1803). In much of Asia, hybrids of introduced C.

Transgene expressions in seabass (Lates calcarifer) following muscular injection of plasmid DNA: a strategy for vaccine development?

Muscular injection has become one of the direct methods for transferring foreign DNA into organisms. The technique has been recently introduced in the development of vaccines and gene therapy. Vaccine development, in particular, would be desirable in managing viral diseases in farmed fish. In this study, the technique was performed on seabass (Lates calcarifer) and was found that the foreign gene could be transferred successfully through injection into the muscles.

Selective breeding for increased body weight in a synthetic breed of Egytian Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus: response to selection and genetic parameters

Selection for harvest weight was performed in a fully pedigreed synthetic line of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in Egypt for two generations. Records were available over three spawning seasons (2002, 2003 and 2004) for weight at the beginning of communal rearing (initial weight), harvest weight and survival rate. The data set consisted of 9,267 progeny records from 214 sires and 323 dams. Phenotypic and genetic parameters, as well as response to selection, were estimated fitting an animal model as well as a sire and dam model to the data.

Quantitative genetic basis of fatty acid composition in the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) selected for high growth

The quantitative genetic basis of fatty acid composition was examined in the Genetically Improved Farmed Tilapia (GIFT) strain of Nile tilapia selected for high breeding value for body weight and in the contemporaneous control selected for average breeding value. Gas chromatography analysis of 514 frozen fillet samples, obtained from the offspring of 104 sires and 154 dams from two generations in 2006 and 2007, showed that the fish possess all important fatty acids (FA), with the amount of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids being 3.6%.

Progress toward a global genealogy of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) strains using mitochondrial nucleotide sequences data

As part of a study of genetic variation in the Vietnamese strains of the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) using direct DNA sequencing of mitochondrial control and ATPase6/8 gene regions, samples from a number of other countries were analyzed for comparison. Results show that the levels of sequence divergence in common carp is low on a global scale, with the Asian carp having the highest diversity while Koi and European carp are invariant. A genealogical analysis supports a close relationship among Vietnamese, Koi, Chinese Color and, to a lesser extent, European carp.

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