The role of the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Cattagena Protocol on Biosafety in minimizing adverse effects of invasive alien species and living modified organisms

The introduction of alien species into ecosystems has the potential to adversely affect biological diversity. The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), an international agreement with 182 member countries including 53 in Africa, requires parties to prevent the introduction of, control or eradicate those alien species that threaten ecosystems, habitats or species. The parties to the Convention have developed guiding principles for the prevention, introduction, and mitigation of impacts of alien species, which are an important guide for managing species introductions.

Quarantine procedures and their implementation

Diseases have become one of the most significant constraints to aquaculture development and management worldwide. It is clear that most disease incursions and outbreaks stem from unregulated movement of aquatic animals, with little or no risk assessment and quarantine. The way to reduce the introduction of pathogens and occurrence of disease outbreaks is to apply appropriate international norms, recommendations, and standards that govern safe trans-boundary movement of aquatic animals and animal products.

Proceedings of the international workshop responding to HIV and AIDS in the fishery sector in Africa

The purpose of the workshop was to enable professionals and organizations working with fishing communities inresponse to HIV and AIDS in Africa to share experiences, appraise the efficacy of their approaches and identify actions in research and development that will further improve their impact. The workshop pursued and achievedthe following objectives: 1)Review and compare research findings and approaches applied in response to HIV andAIDS in fishing communities and the wider fishery sector. 2)Identify good practice examples for wider application.

Incidence of human pathogenic bacteria in shrimp feeds - a study from India

The incidence of various human pathogenic bacteria in commercially available and home-made shrimp feeds used on some farms in India was analyzed. The Total Heterotrophic Bacteria in the commercial feed samples ranged between 103–105 cfu g-1 and those in the farm-made feeds between 106-107 cfu g-1. No bacteria of significance to human health were found to be associated with any of the commercial feed samples analyzed, while farm-made feeds analyzed during the study showed a high incidence of various human pathogens such as Vibrio parahaemolyticus, V.

HIV/AIDS in the fisheries sector in Africa

This policy brief provides information on the scale of HIV/AIDS in the fisheries sector in Africa, the reasons why prevalence is so high and how this affects fishing communities. Access to health services and antiretroviral therapy is then briefly reviewed, as are some of the limited experiences directly targeting HIV/AIDS programmes to fishing communities. The concluding discussion highlights areas where more work is needed on policy development, action and further research.

Feckless and reckless or forbearing and resourceful? Looking behind the stereotypes of HIV and AIDS in "fishing communities"

Over the last decade evidence has emerged suggesting that in many countries fisherfolk, as an occupational group, are at greater risk to HIV and AIDS than the general adult population. This high vulnerability has been explained in terms of the lifestyles associated with fishing and related occupations, such as fish processing and trading. Fishermen have been portrayed as risk takers, their attitudes and behaviour shaped by the physical and economic risks of the fishing lifestyle.

Decentralized provision of primary healthcare in rural Bangladesh : a study of government facilities

Bangladesh has made significant progress in health indicators in recent years in spite of her low level of income. This is mainly due to the commitment of the state supported by donors in providing preventive care with respect to child health and family planning. However, there are serious problems related to both access and quality of curative care that hurt the poor most. Infrastructures for service delivery exist at local level in rural areas but they function inefficiently.

A biosafety approach to addressing risks posed by aquaculture escapees

Aquaculture operations should include a comprehensive biosafety program because of the risks they may impose on biological resources in the environments into which cultured organisms may escape. Risk assessment incorporates hazard identification and risk analysis. Risk analysis encompasses describing the likelihood that a hazard and its consequences will occur and the severity of realization of a consequence.

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