Aquatic agricultural systems (AAS) are food production systems in which the productivity of freshwater or coastal ecosystems contributes significantly to total household nutrition, food security, and income in developing countries. The Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research (CGIAR) engages in research in development to address this challenge.
In many low-income countries with water resources, small fish species are important for the livelihoods, nutrition and income of the rural poor. The small size of fish favours frequent consumption by and nutrition of the rural poor, as these fish are captured, sold and bought in small quantities; used both raw and processed in traditional dishes; and are nutrient-rich. All small fish species are a rich source of animal protein, and – as they are eaten whole – have a very high content of bioavailable calcium. Some are rich in vitamin A, iron, zinc and essential fats.
Recent attempts to improve the income levels of municipal fishermen in the Philippines have included a veriety offinancing schemes, the formation of associations and cooperatives and extension work by the Bureau of Fisheriesand Aquatic Resources. Work currently being carried out in the San Miguel Bay area is outlined.
Measuring the vulnerability of human populations to environmental change is increasingly being used to develop appropriate adaptation policies and management plans for different economic sectors. We developed a national-level vulnerability index that is specific to food security policies by measuring nations’ relative vulnerabilities to a decline in their coral reef fisheries. Coral reef fisheries are expected to decline with climate and anthropogenic disturbances, which may have significant consequences for food security.
An account of the fisheries in the Lake Qarun, Egypt is described in this article. As the salinity of the water increased through the years, Lake Qarun experienced significant ecological effects on its fauna and flora. The original freshwater fish fauna of the lake was drastically affected.
Bangladesh prides itself on being very rich in fish diversity. Its numeroud and diverse inland waterbodies and paddy fields are home to over 267 freshwater fish species. Biodiversity of fish species is important for nutrition and livelihoods of the rural poor in Bangladesh. There are promising fisheries technologies which have been developed and are being practised for improving fish biodiversity and nutrition.
In rural Cambodia, fish is a source of food and income to millions of people. However, there has been a real threat to fish populations in natural wetlands due to the degradation of aquatic biodiversity and habitat, illegal fishing, increase of population and demand for fish, and the use of harmful pesticides for agriculture. The Rice Field Fisheries Enhancement Project (RFFEP) seeks to rebuild and protect the fish populations through innovative methods.
The findings are presented of experiments conducted at the Domasi Experimental Fish Farm in Zomba, Malawi to evaluate the hook-and-line fishing gear and cover pot techniques for harvesting tilapias (Oreochromis shiranus and Tilapia zillii ) from small-scale fish ponds.
Details are given of a program in small-business management developed for local fishermen in St. Kitts to improve their ability to operate a small fishing business. The foundation of the training was a recordkeeping system developed through observations of the fishing activity with the assistance of the fishermen and fishing officers. Using this recordkeeping as a baseline, 3 fundamental financial management methods were presented: budgetting, cash flow analysis and net worth statement.
A literature review indicated that artificial reefs seemed promising as refuges for fauna and to increase fish productivity. The author studied this alternative and after several months of preparatory arrangements a small reef was built between June and April 1984 at a depth of 10 m using approximately 400 scrap tires on the eastern shore of the Gulf of Nicoya, Costa Rica.