South-East Asia has traditionally been the global centre of production of tropical sea cucumbers for Chinese markets. Early research into culture methods took place outside this region, notably in India, the Pacific region and China. However, recent investment in Holothuria scabra (sandfish) culture has led to some significant advances within this region. The Philippines and Vietnam have been at the forefront of recent efforts, with involvement from substantial national programs and local institutions as well as international donors and scientific organisations.
This chapter examines pangasius catfish aquaculture in Vietnam in the context of changing social relations of production, European consumer trends and regulation. In particular we are interested in how the rise of 'sociotechnical' environmental regulatory networks in the form of quality standards and third-party certififcation have altered power relations between consumers and producers across global space.
The marketing system for sea cucumber in South-East Asia is generally inefficient, and marketing channels are multilayered. Information asymmetry encourages proliferation of redundant players in the distribution system, while high transaction costs keep the overall marketing margin high but the price received by collectors low. This paper is limited to establishing the major features of the marketing system for sea cucumber in South-East Asia.
Research by the authors examined the impacts of governmental and non-governmental standards on the ability of seafood producers and processors in Vietnam to access export markets. The Vietnamese government plays an important role in the governance of international seafood trade, but importing nations establish food safety standards and NGOs have also become involved. To assure market access, exporters must respond to buyers and certification systems that buyers adopt.
The participation of farmers in the research process related to the development of integrated farming processes is discussed with respect to observations made on the Mekong Delta in Vietnam. The use of drawing pictures of integrated agriculture-aquaculture systems as a means of helping both farmers and researchers to learn from each other in order to improve systems is noted.
This paper provides a comparative analysis of the social and cultural dimensions of fish hatchery development in Vietnam and Thailand. Two detailed case studies highlight the importance of a variety of culturally mediated, informal interpersonal relationships in facilitating the establishment of new hatchery enterprises. The analysis reveals that in both Vietnam and Thailand, informal relationships are extremely effective conduits for the transfer of productive technologies from public institutions to private entrepreneurs and for the subsequent development of private enterprises.
Wastewater is reused and treated in four main types of farming in Vietnam: fish culture in 200 ha; rotation of rice and fish culture in 400 ha; land vegetables and aquatic vegetables.
This is one of the four countries reports which provides an assessment of the livelihoods strategies of the poor people dependent on inland fisheries in Vietnam. The project aimed to characterise the poor, identify their dependence upon aquatic resources, the nature and status of those resources, and their vulnerabilities in relation to loss or mismanagement. Constraints and possible research priorities have been identified through consultations with poor fishers and other aquatic resource users, and with other organizations. Fisheries resource status has been summarized.
This report provides an assessment of the livelihoods strategies of the poor people dependent on inland fisheries in Bangladesh, Cambodia, the Lao PDR and Vietnam. Drawing upon the results of a one year investigation under the Project entitled "Understanding Livelihoods Dependent on Inland Fisheries", policies and institutions for fisheries management and livelihoods assets of the stakeholders in inland fisheries in the four countries. The report also discusses the trends and changes in fisheries and wetland resources.
Results of the studies undertaken for breeding and nursing Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in ricefields in Thai Binh province in Vietnam during the years 1995-96 are briefly presented in this paper.