Aquaculture in Thailand is relatively recent. Formerly, there were ample freshwater fish in natural water bodies such as lakes, rivers and canals, but with decreasing catches due to overfishing, pesticide use, and a reduction in the flood plain fishery associated with the construction of irrigation systems, there has been a surge of interest in aquaculture. In contrast to the relatively well defined and stable Chinese system of integrated fish farming, Thai systems are characterized by instability since aquaculture in the country is experiencing a period of rapid evolution.
Bivalve culture in Thailand is discussed, describing pilot hatchery operations at Prachuap.
An account is given of the fishing industry in Thailand.
This paper provides a comparative analysis of the social and cultural dimensions of fish hatchery development in Vietnam and Thailand. Two detailed case studies highlight the importance of a variety of culturally mediated, informal interpersonal relationships in facilitating the establishment of new hatchery enterprises. The analysis reveals that in both Vietnam and Thailand, informal relationships are extremely effective conduits for the transfer of productive technologies from public institutions to private entrepreneurs and for the subsequent development of private enterprises.
The work carried out by some of the brackishwater research stations in Thailand is described. The activities of these stations have 2 outstanding features: 1) the crustacean and finfish species are broadly similar for most areas (shrimp, Penaeus monodon and P. merguiensis , and seabass and grouper being the most important); 2) while it may appear that the programmes of the stations are similar on the species of common importance, this is inevitable inprogrammes oriented towards local extension work.
A account is given of the aquaculture courses available at the Aquaculture Research and Training Asian Institute of Technology, describing also the facilities and research directions which include a scheme to recycle seepage, excreta reuse by duckweed, integrated farming and water hyacinth.
The production of snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) from wild stocks and traditional culture systems has been declining in central Thailand, although they are on the increase in modern culture practices adopted in some provinces. Net yields of T. pectoralis in traditional systems are about a third of those in modern systems. The potential of T. pectoralis as a candidate for more intensive waste-fed polyculture appears promising if seed supply constraints can be removed.
This report examines the current status of production and participation in large-scale and small scale fisheries in Thailand. It also looks at both the marine and inland capture fisheries of the country and capture fisheries out of Thai waters by Thai fishing boats.
Fisheries are an important source of animal protein for most of Thailand’s population, particularly in provinces on or near the coast. Between 1978 and 1997 the per capita consumption of fish averaged 24 kg·capita-1 annually. In 1995, about 535 210 people were involved in the fisheries sector and 44% of these were engaged in small scale marine capture fisheries. Since 1982, Thailand has faced problems with the development of marine capture fisheries and their over-exploitation which has increased fishery conflicts and disputes with neighboring countries.
Data from trawl surveys (1961 - 95) and annual production statistics (1971 - 95) were used to examine the status of demersal fishery resources in the Gulf of Thailand. Analyses were focused on biomass trends, population parameters and exploitation rates of dominant species, and assessment of excess capacity from fishing effort and yield estimates. The results indicate by 1995, the trawlable biomass in the Gulf had declined to only about 8.2% of the biomass level in 1961.