South-East Asia has traditionally been the global centre of production of tropical sea cucumbers for Chinese markets. Early research into culture methods took place outside this region, notably in India, the Pacific region and China. However, recent investment in Holothuria scabra (sandfish) culture has led to some significant advances within this region. The Philippines and Vietnam have been at the forefront of recent efforts, with involvement from substantial national programs and local institutions as well as international donors and scientific organisations.
As part of the Philippines' plan to accelerate the country's rate of aquaculture development, a study team was sent to neighboring Southeast Asian countries to observe advances for improving and developing aquaculture in the Philippines. The 3-man team, of which the author was a member, toured Malaysia, Thailand, Japan, and Taiwan. This article is a brief account of observations from the trip and interviews with authorities from selected fisheries agencies, with emphasis on freshwater aquaculture.
Aquaculture in Thailand is relatively recent. Formerly, there were ample freshwater fish in natural water bodies such as lakes, rivers and canals, but with decreasing catches due to overfishing, pesticide use, and a reduction in the flood plain fishery associated with the construction of irrigation systems, there has been a surge of interest in aquaculture. In contrast to the relatively well defined and stable Chinese system of integrated fish farming, Thai systems are characterized by instability since aquaculture in the country is experiencing a period of rapid evolution.
Bivalve culture in Thailand is discussed, describing pilot hatchery operations at Prachuap.
An account is given of the fishing industry in Thailand.
This review is prepared as part of the FAO Project “Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and monitoring in aquaculture”. The review provides a compilation, review and synthesis of existing EIA and environmental monitoring procedures and practices in aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region, the largest aquaculture-producing region in the world. This review, as in other regions, gives special consideration to four areas related to EIA and monitoring in aquaculture including: (1) the requirements (2) the practice (3) the effectiveness and (4) suggestions for improvements.
This paper presents a series of short mathematical expressions that may be used to determine the necessary variables in production planning in a modular pond system for fish culture.
The WorldFish Center and its research partners have recently made efforts to develop genetically improved carp strains. This paper analyses the comparative performance of the genetically improved carp strains on both average and efficient farms in four carp-dominating Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Vietnam). The results show superior performance of improved strains in terms of body weight and survival rate on both average and efficient farms. On an average farm, the improved carp strain gives 15% higher body weight at harvest in India to 36% higher in Bangladesh.
Northeastern Thailand (Isan) is one of the least developed areas in this economically fast growing country. Traditionally, rice farming is the most important source of income and rice is the staple food. Animal protein consumption in the remote areas still largely depends on hunting and collection of products like fish, snails and insects. Besides fisheries activities on the Mekong River and its tributaries, and fish harvests from ricefields and village fishponds, further potential for fish production has been created with the construction of small and medium sized reservoirs.
The length-weight relationship of 26 fish species belonging to 17 families obtained from the Gulf of Thailand was examined. As seven species were obtained from different survey periods and three were from two different locations, seasonal and geographic variations of the equation between body weight W and total length L, W = aL super(b), were examined. The b values of the 27 species were tested for their significant differences from the value of 3; this confirmed that a few species showed significant differences of b value from 3.