Fisheries are an important source of animal protein for most of Thailand’s population, particularly in provinces on or near the coast. Between 1978 and 1997 the per capita consumption of fish averaged 24 kg·capita-1 annually. In 1995, about 535 210 people were involved in the fisheries sector and 44% of these were engaged in small scale marine capture fisheries. Since 1982, Thailand has faced problems with the development of marine capture fisheries and their over-exploitation which has increased fishery conflicts and disputes with neighboring countries.
A brief account is given of project activities conducted regarding promotion of rice-cum-fish culture in Surin Province,Thailand as a means of increasing protein consumption and also income for rural people. The effect of stocking rate and stocking size on production was investigated. Three fish species were used: Cyprinus carpio, Puntius gonionotus and Oreochromis niloticus . It is believed that further research is warranted regarding rice-fish systems in which wild and cultured species can co-exist.
The 1995 trawl data of the research vessels Pramong 2 and 9 in the Gulf of Thailand were analyzed using TWINSPAN and DCA. Four main station clusters were identified related to geographic location and depth. Two clusters are associated with shallow water areas and the other two clusters are found in deeper areas with water depths > 30 m. Temporal analysis indicates clustering of monthly data into wet and dry seasons. Examination of species abundance data indicates that the seasonality may not be very pronounced.
Length-frequency data on Saurida elongata and S. undosquamis (Synodontidae) from bottom trawl survey conducted in 1984 in the Southern Gulf of Thailand were analyzed using the Compleat ELEFAN software. The seasonal pattern of recruitment suggests two uneven pulses per year, one stronger than the other. Yield-per-recruit analyses suggested that the investigated stocks are presently overexploited. Possible sources of bias for the analyses presented here are discussed.
The production of snakeskin gourami (Trichogaster pectoralis) from wild stocks and traditional culture systems has been declining in central Thailand, although they are on the increase in modern culture practices adopted in some provinces. Net yields of T. pectoralis in traditional systems are about a third of those in modern systems. The potential of T. pectoralis as a candidate for more intensive waste-fed polyculture appears promising if seed supply constraints can be removed.
This review is prepared as part of the FAO Project “Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) and monitoring in aquaculture”. The review provides a compilation, review and synthesis of existing EIA and environmental monitoring procedures and practices in aquaculture in the Asia-Pacific region, the largest aquaculture-producing region in the world. This review, as in other regions, gives special consideration to four areas related to EIA and monitoring in aquaculture including: (1) the requirements (2) the practice (3) the effectiveness and (4) suggestions for improvements.
The WorldFish Center and its research partners have recently made efforts to develop genetically improved carp strains. This paper analyses the comparative performance of the genetically improved carp strains on both average and efficient farms in four carp-dominating Asian countries (Bangladesh, India, Thailand and Vietnam). The results show superior performance of improved strains in terms of body weight and survival rate on both average and efficient farms. On an average farm, the improved carp strain gives 15% higher body weight at harvest in India to 36% higher in Bangladesh.
Northeastern Thailand (Isan) is one of the least developed areas in this economically fast growing country. Traditionally, rice farming is the most important source of income and rice is the staple food. Animal protein consumption in the remote areas still largely depends on hunting and collection of products like fish, snails and insects. Besides fisheries activities on the Mekong River and its tributaries, and fish harvests from ricefields and village fishponds, further potential for fish production has been created with the construction of small and medium sized reservoirs.
The length-weight relationship of 26 fish species belonging to 17 families obtained from the Gulf of Thailand was examined. As seven species were obtained from different survey periods and three were from two different locations, seasonal and geographic variations of the equation between body weight W and total length L, W = aL super(b), were examined. The b values of the 27 species were tested for their significant differences from the value of 3; this confirmed that a few species showed significant differences of b value from 3.
In Thailand, grouper farming can provide an opportunity for poor households to generate substantial financial benefits. As the success of the Department of Fisheries project shows, opportunities will be greater with efforts to remove the barriers to initial investments, and support for farmers to sustain production.