Biophysical impacts of aquaculture, with consequences for biodiversity, vary with species and culture systems and include issues such as: nutrient enrichment/removal, chemicals, land use, species introductions, genetic flow to wild populations, disturbance of balance or introduction of pathogen/parasites, consumption of capture fishery resources, energy, and greenhouse gas emissions. Guiding principles, labeling schemes and various tools are needed to analyze performance and conformance. Ecological footprints and life-cycle analysis aim to capture biophysical performance, including up- and downstream effects of policy decisions. Aquaculture provides a range of services but also makes demands and impacts on ecosystem functions, services, and thus biodiversity.


Troell, M., Kautsky, N., Beveridge, M.C.M., Henriksson, P., Primavera, J., Rönnbäck, P., Folke, C. (2013)
p. 189-201. In: S A Levin (ed.) Encyclopaedia of Biodiversity, 2nd Ed., Vol. 1. Waltham, MA, Academic Press