The last three decades have witnessed dramatic changes in the supply of and demand for fish. Global demand for fish has risen rapidly with rising populations and increasing per capita fish consumption. The rise in demand has been met by a rapid growth in production and increased global trade. The fastest growing component is aquaculture, whereas capture fisheries have remained generally stagnant. Asia is the leading contributor to this expansion, accounting for over 63% of total fish production and as much as 90% of all aquaculture output. This article provides an overview of technological and policy issues that need to be considered to make aquaculture deliver food and livelihood security to the poor.