Blue Frontiers: Managing the environmental costs of aquaculture is a publication from The WorldFish Center and Conservation International. The report analyzes how the global aquaculture industry uses natural resources and its impacts on the environment. It makes a broad-brush comparison of aquaculture with other animal food production systems and extrapolates from past history to look forward and identify potential future impacts. The paper also proposes important recommendations for policy makers and scientists engaged in debate on the future of food production and nutrition security. This brief provides a summary of the report and its conclusions, and highlights policy implications and the research agenda necessary to more effectively manage the environmental costs so that aquaculture can contribute to food security and environmental sustainability.