There are over 1 300 species of cyprinids in Asia, which form an important part of the world’s aquatic biodiversity. Aquaculture and capture fisheries involving cyprinids are a vital part of the livelihoods of many millions of people in this region. The production of carps from aquaculture in Asia constitutes over half of world finfish aquaculture production. Further growth in human populations will increase the demand for carps as food, but may also threaten wild populations. This publication focuses on carp genetic resources for aquaculture in major carp producing countries of Asia viz., Bangladesh, China, India, Indonesia, Thailand and Vietnam, describing the species of importance, our current knowledge of the genetics of these species and genetic improvement of these species for aquaculture.