Myanmar is a country with central lowlands including a mega delta, ringed by steep rugged highlands. As the second-most important food after rice, fish is an essential component of the diet in Myanmar, where per capita fish consumption is high at over 25 kg and the preference is for freshwater fish. Domestic fish demand is growing while there is a decline in capture fisheries. Improved management systems are now required to safeguard sustainable capture fisheries, and the expanding aquaculture sector needs support to unlock its potential in new geographical areas and ensure an inclusive growth. The CGIAR Research Program on Fish Agri-Food-Systems (FISH) is assisting government institutions and national and international organizations with this process of adjustment. Our integrated research agenda is being developed and carried out in collaboration with our Myanmar partners and focuses on the two interlinked challenges of sustainable production from aquaculture and small-scale fisheries, with crosscutting themes of nutrition, gender, youth, climate change and entrepreneurship.