In the developing world, more than 1 billion people depend on fish for most of their animal protein, and another 1 billion people depend on livestock. Poor people, especially women and children, typically eat very little meat, milk and fish. This contributes to nutrient deficiencies and poor physical and cognitive development for children and poor health and livelihood outcomes for adults. Additionally, the productivity and efficiency of small- and medium-scale livestock and fish producers and marketing systems in developing countries generally lag behind those in other parts of the world. The CGIAR Research Program on Livestock and Fish seeks to increase the productivity of small- and medium-scale livestock and fish systems in sustainable ways, making meat, milk and fish more available and affordable to poor consumers across the developing world.