Fish and fisheries make a major contribution to nutritional security and the fight against hunger and poverty in Asia. An additional 37 million t of food fish will be needed by 2020 to meet the needs of the growing population, changing dietary habits and increasing income levels. Production from capture fisheries has reached a plateau, with most fisheries having reached their maximum sustainable yields or being overexploited. A number of challenges need to be addressed if the present production from capture fisheries is to be sustained and aquaculture production increased to bridge the gap between the supply and the growing demand for fish. This needs the commitment of governments to implement policies that foster growth of fisheries and aquaculture and to allocate adequate human and financial resources to the development of the sector.