Cambodia is highly vulnerable to the effects of climate change on fisheries, which supply livelihoods for millions and up to 80% of all animal protein in the diet. Most fisheries are highly variable by nature and subject to environmental change, including climate change. Hydropower dam construction, intensified fishing pressure and macroeconomic drivers are likely to affect Cambodian fisheries more immediately and visibly than climate change. Building fisher communities' capacity to adapt to these more immediate changes goes hand-in-hand with improving their capacity to adapt to climate change. A far-reaching strategy to improve adaptive capacity and strengthen resilience promises to reduce poverty and enhance food production now and in the years to come.