Rainbow trout is one of the important exotic species that is well established in the upland waters of India. This paper presents the historical background of its introduction and the present status of the fish in the streams of he Nilgiri peninsula of India. The rainbow trout inhabits natural reservoirs and streams of the region as a self-recruiting population. The growth rate is reported to be relatively low and conflicting views about its taxonomic status have been reported. Successful crossbreeding of the Nilgiri rainbow trout with trout stocks from the Indian State of Himachal Pradesh has indicated the scope for utilizing cryopreserved milt as a mode of introducing new genetic material into the Nilgiri rainbow trout population. This paper outlines the requirement of ecological and genetic data to develop a strategy for management and reintroduction fresh stocks.