With limited success of western models to manage fisheries resources, Customary Marine Tenure (CMT) could be a more effective vehicle for forming and imposing sustainable management of sea cucumber resources in Solomon Islands. Analysis of national export data from 1991 to 2001 shows a decreased landing of sea cucumbers from a record level of 622 tonnes (dried) in 1991 to 240 tonnes (dried) in 2001, with > 75 % of the 2001 landings derived from species of medium- and low-commercial value. The resources appear to be over-exploited because the falls in landings contrast sharply with the increase in both the exploitation of non-traditional fishing areas and participation of fishers in the fishery in the last 10 years. The recent years of civil war (1998-2000) and resulting economic hardship in the country have left the sea cucumber resources extremely vulnerable to unsustainable and destructive exploitation. This vulnerability has been complicated by a marked weakness in the Government’s capacity to formulate and implement the necessary policies to protect these resources. Regulations such as size limits, bag limits, gear restrictions and seasonal closures [which are ad hoc in nature] have failed to achieve the desired aims, due in part to the limited human, financial and technical resources. Given the failure of centralised management of the fishery, the CMT system is likely to be a better tool for managing the sea cucumber resources. Because the CMT system is community-based and the inshore marine resources fall under this jurisdiction, active participation of fishing communities and resource owners in forming and implementing management strategies at the community level is fundamental within this context. Management of these resources should be transferred to communities and should entail the enforcement of regulations such as bag limits, gear restriction and seasonal closures, species rotation and area restriction. These should be implemented in accordance with the local system of CMT. This shift in the management mode will give a feeling of ownership and control within the communities, providing and empowering them to determine plans, activities and methods of implementation, fitting to local circumstances and needs. In contrast, the national government would undertake a supportive and coordinating role, developing policy and regulatory frameworks. The shift to customary management of sea cucumbers should reduce or halt the current overfishing and reveal an alternative approach for artisanal communities in the Pacific.
Customary marine tenure in Solomon Islands: a shifting paradigm for management of sea cucumbers in artisanal fisheries
Ramofafia, C., Lane, I., Oengpepa, C. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2004)
FAO Fish. Tech. Pap. (463): 259-260 [open access]