When fish have only access to formulated feed, the optimal dietary protein to energy ratio (P:E) for tilapia ranges between 18 and 23 g.MJ-1. In pond culture, where natural foods complement administrated feed, increasing the carbon:nitrogen (C:N) ratio stimulates the natural food productivity. This study assessed if lowering the dietary P:E ratio (and thus increasing the C:N ratio of the feed input in the pond) below the optimal P:E ratio affects fish productivity, food web dynamics and nitrogen balances in semi-intensively managed tilapia ponds.
Effect of dietary protein to energy ratio on performance of nile tilapia and food web enhancement in semi-intensive pond aquaculture
Kabir, K.A., Schrama, J.W., Verreth, J.A.J., Phillips, M.J., Verdegem, M.C.J. (2018)
Aquaculture, online first 20 Sept