In Cambodia, fish is a central source of food for the rural poor due to its abundance and availability, and contributes greatly to national food security. In this paper, we review how fish is a staple food, provides quality proteins and as well as essential fatty acids, and combats micronutrient deficiencies. Despite the fact that fish is highly nutritious and widely consumed in Cambodia, the Cambodian population still suffers from severe malnutrition. Children and women are specifically more prone to deficiencies. Several factors such as availability and affordability of varied and nutritious food sources, lack of diversity in the diet and cultural beliefs contribute to Cambodians´ poor nutrition. Efforts to meet dietary recommendations are presented in this paper, as well as proposals for further research, policies and efforts to alleviate malnutrition in Cambodia.