Production and consumption of fish were estimated for a one year period during 1995-96 using a sample of 5 117 households. The sample was taken from a study area covering 83 sample communes in 51 fishing districts belonging to eight freshwater fisheries provinces. About 39% of households in fishing dependent communities were actively involved in fishing. Of the total fishing households, 14% took part in commercial fishing using middle-scale fishing gear. Average annual catch per household for middle-scale and family fishing was 3 319 kg and 647 kg, respectively. Nearly 40% of the fish catch was consumed within the communes. The per capita consumption of fresh fish by fishing households (49.7 kg/yr) was higher than that of non-fishing households (39.9 kg/yr). Including processed fish, the total fish consumption by the fishing dependent communes was estimated at 75.6 kg per capita per annum. Given this high rate of fish consumption, development interventions must consider the role of fisheries in ensuring a sustainable livelihood and food security to Cambodia's growing population.