In the State of Assam, floodplains cover 2.6 million ha of area that is traditionally rice growing. The ecosystem in the rice-growing areas has undergone major changes as a result of various developmental activities and adoption of modern farming technology. Rice fields were once the major source of fish for the rural farmers. There has been a sharp decline in fish population in rice field leading to a chronic shortage of fish in the State and a deterioration of the rice ecosystem. This paper describes two on-farm experiments for integrating rice cultivation and fish production with the intent of contributing to the understanding of how raising fish can improve rice yields, riceecosystems and farm incomes.