The status of integrated agriculture-aquaculture (IAA) in Asia is reviewed, with an emphasis on rural small-scale systems. Existing IAA systems within mixed farming systems are characterised and the economic and ecological role of aquaculture described. The importance of nutrient recycling of otherwise unused waste materials as an important element and a benefit of integration is emphasised. Approaches for newentrants to explore and plan integration on their farms are presented. In comparison to other enterprises, the pond offers relatively greater potential for integration on farms and for flows of nutrients to and from the newenterprise. Opportunities for integration are classified based on nutrient source and system. The role of IAA systems in rural livelihoods and the considerations for IAA under the specific conditions of nutrient-deficient smallholder farms are outlined. The present state of experience in dissemination, uptake and system evolution of IAA farms is reviewed as well as the achieved impacts in Asia, both on the poor and on commercial developments, based on examples from Bangladesh, China, India and Thailand. It is concluded that considerable potential exists for further aquaculture integration in Asia, with notable improvements in the livelihoods of rural small-scale farmers. # 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.